Alchemy and chemistry in Islam refers to the study of both traditional alchemy and early practical chemistry (the early chemical investigation of nature in general) by Muslim scientists in the medieval Islamic world. Alchemy a part of the Occult Tradition is both a philosophy and a practice with an ultimately unknown aim involving the improvement of the alchemist as well as the making of Chemistry (from Egyptian kēme (chem meaning "earth") is the Science concerned with the composition structure and properties The word alchemy itself was derived from the Arabic word الكيمياء al-kimia. Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language

After the fall of the Roman Empire, the focus of alchemical development moved to the Arab Empire and the Islamic civilization. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Much more is known about Islamic alchemy as it was better documented; indeed, most of the earlier writings that have come down through the years were preserved as Arabic translations. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. [1]

The study of alchemy and chemistry often overlapped in the early Islamic world, but later there were disputes between the traditional alchemists and the practical chemists who discredited alchemy. Muslim chemists and alchemists were the first to employ the experimental scientific method (as practised in modern chemistry), while Muslim alchemists also developed theories on the transmutation of metals, the philosopher's stone and the Takwin (artificial creation of life in the laboratory), like in later medieval European alchemy, though these alchemical theories were rejected by practical Muslim chemists from the 9th century onwards. A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion In scientific inquiry an experiment ( Latin: Ex- periri, "to try out" is a method of investigating particular types of research questions or Scientific method refers to bodies of Techniques for investigating phenomena The M acro E xpansion T emplate A ttribute L anguage complements TAL, providing macros which allow the reuse of code across The philosopher's stone (lapis philosophorum Greek: Chrysopoeia) is a Legendary substance supposedly capable of turning inexpensive Metals Takwin ( Arabic: تكوين was a goal of certain Ismaili Muslim alchemists, notably Jabir ibn Hayyan. Artificial life (commonly Alife or alife) is a field of study and an associated art form which examine Systems related to Life, its processes A laboratory (informally lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific Research, Experiments and

## Overview

### Contributions to alchemy

The Islamic world was a melting pot for alchemy. Islamic alchemists such as Jabir ibn Hayyan (Latinized as Geber) and al-Razi (Latinized as Rasis or Rhazes) contributed key chemical discoveries, including:

• Distillation apparatus (such as the alembic, still, and retort) which were able to fully purify chemical substances. For the 12th century astronomer see Jabir ibn Aflah. For the anonymous 14th century Spanish alchemist see Pseudo-Geber. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Distillation is a method of separating Mixtures based on differences in their volatilities in a boiling liquid mixture An alembic (from Arabic Al-inbiq الأنبيق is an alchemical Still consisting of two Retorts connected by a tube A still is an apparatus used to distill Miscible or immiscible (eg In a Chemistry laboratory a retort is a glassware device used for Distillation or Dry distillation of substances A chemical substance is a Material with a definite chemical composition.
• The words elixir, alembic and alcohol are of Arabic origin. An alembic (from Arabic Al-inbiq الأنبيق is an alchemical Still consisting of two Retorts connected by a tube In Chemistry, an alcohol is any Organic compound in which a Hydroxyl group ( - O[[hydrogen H]]) is bound to a Carbon Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language
• The muriatic (hydrochloric), sulfuric, nitric and acetic acids. Hydrochloric acid is the Solution of Hydrogen chloride ( H[[Chlorine Cl]] in water Sulfuric (or sulphuric acid, H 2 S[[oxygen O]]4 is a strong Mineral acid. Nitric acid ( H[[nitrate NO3]] also known as Aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is a highly corrosive and Acetic acid, also known as ethanoic acid, is an organic chemical compound, giving Vinegar its sour taste
• Soda and potash. Sodium carbonate (also known as washing soda or soda ash), is a Sodium Salt of Carbonic acid. Potash (or carbonate of potash) is an impure form of Potassium carbonate ( K 2 CO3)
• Distilled water and purified distilled alcohol. Purified water is water from any source that is physically processed to remove impurities
• Perfumery
• Many more chemical substances and apparatus. Perfume is a mixture of fragrant Essential oils and Aroma compounds Fixatives and Solvents used to give the human body animals objects and living A chemical substance is a Material with a definite chemical composition.
• From the Arabic names of al-natrun and al-qalīy, Latinized into Natrium and Kalium, come the modern symbols for sodium and potassium. Sodium (ˈsoʊdiəm is an element which has the symbol Na( Latin natrium, from Arabic natrun) atomic number 11 atomic mass 22 Potassium (pəˈtæsiəm is a Chemical element. It has the symbol K (kalium from qalīy Atomic number 19 and Atomic mass 39
• The discovery that aqua regia, a mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids, could dissolve the noblest metal; gold, was to fuel the imagination of alchemists for the next millennium. Aqua regia ( Latin for royal water) is a highly corrosive fuming yellow or red solution In Computer science, ACID ( Atomicity Consistency Isolation Durability) is a set of properties that guarantee that Database transactions are

Islamic philosophers also made great contributions to alchemical hermeticism. The most influential author in this regard was arguably Jabir Ibn Hayyan (Arabic جابر إبن حيان, Latin Geberus; usually rendered in English as Geber). For the 12th century astronomer see Jabir ibn Aflah. For the anonymous 14th century Spanish alchemist see Pseudo-Geber. He analyzed each Aristotelian element in terms of four basic qualities of hotness, coldness, dryness, and moistness. [2] According to Geber, in each metal two of these qualities were interior and two were exterior. For example, lead was externally cold and dry, while gold was hot and moist. Thus, Jabir theorized, by rearranging the qualities of one metal, a different metal would result. [3] By this reasoning, the search for the philosopher's stone was introduced to Western alchemy. The philosopher's stone (lapis philosophorum Greek: Chrysopoeia) is a Legendary substance supposedly capable of turning inexpensive Metals Jabir developed an elaborate numerology whereby the root letters of a substance's name in Arabic, when treated with various transformations, held correspondences to the element's physical properties. Numerology is any of many Systems Traditions or Beliefs in a mystical or Esoteric relationship between Numbers and physical

Muslim alchemists also developed theories on the transmutation of metals, the philosopher's stone and the Takwin (artificial creation of life in the laboratory), like in later medieval European alchemy, though these alchemical theories were rejected by practical Muslim chemists from the 9th century onwards. The M acro E xpansion T emplate A ttribute L anguage complements TAL, providing macros which allow the reuse of code across The philosopher's stone (lapis philosophorum Greek: Chrysopoeia) is a Legendary substance supposedly capable of turning inexpensive Metals Takwin ( Arabic: تكوين was a goal of certain Ismaili Muslim alchemists, notably Jabir ibn Hayyan. Artificial life (commonly Alife or alife) is a field of study and an associated art form which examine Systems related to Life, its processes A laboratory (informally lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific Research, Experiments and

### Beginning of chemistry

Jabir ibn Hayyan (Geber), the father of chemistry, invented the alembic still and retort, many chemical processes such as pure distillation and filtration, and many chemical substances such as distilled alcohol. For the 12th century astronomer see Jabir ibn Aflah. For the anonymous 14th century Spanish alchemist see Pseudo-Geber. Chemistry (from Egyptian kēme (chem meaning "earth") is the Science concerned with the composition structure and properties An alembic (from Arabic Al-inbiq الأنبيق is an alchemical Still consisting of two Retorts connected by a tube A still is an apparatus used to distill Miscible or immiscible (eg In a Chemistry laboratory a retort is a glassware device used for Distillation or Dry distillation of substances In a " scientific " sense a chemical process is a method or means of somehow changing one or more Chemicals or Chemical compounds Such a chemical Distillation is a method of separating Mixtures based on differences in their volatilities in a boiling liquid mixture Filtration is a mechanical or physical operation which is used for the separation of solids from fluids (liquids or gases by interposing a medium to fluid flow through which the fluid A chemical substance is a Material with a definite chemical composition. He also established the perfumery industry. Perfume is a mixture of fragrant Essential oils and Aroma compounds Fixatives and Solvents used to give the human body animals objects and living

An early experimental scientific method for chemistry began emerging among early Muslim chemists. In scientific inquiry an experiment ( Latin: Ex- periri, "to try out" is a method of investigating particular types of research questions or Scientific method refers to bodies of Techniques for investigating phenomena Chemistry (from Egyptian kēme (chem meaning "earth") is the Science concerned with the composition structure and properties A chemist is a Scientist trained in the Science of Chemistry. The first and most influential was the 9th century Arab chemist, Geber (Jabir ibn Hayyan), who is "considered by many to be the father of chemistry",[4][5][6][7] for introducing:

• The experimental method; apparatus such as the alembic, still, and retort; and chemical processes such as liquefaction, crystallisation, purification, oxidisation, and evaporation. The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding For the 12th century astronomer see Jabir ibn Aflah. For the anonymous 14th century Spanish alchemist see Pseudo-Geber. In scientific inquiry an experiment ( Latin: Ex- periri, "to try out" is a method of investigating particular types of research questions or Scientific method refers to bodies of Techniques for investigating phenomena An alembic (from Arabic Al-inbiq الأنبيق is an alchemical Still consisting of two Retorts connected by a tube A still is an apparatus used to distill Miscible or immiscible (eg In a Chemistry laboratory a retort is a glassware device used for Distillation or Dry distillation of substances In a " scientific " sense a chemical process is a method or means of somehow changing one or more Chemicals or Chemical compounds Such a chemical Crystallization is the (natural or artificial process of formation of solid Crystals precipitating from a homogeneous --> identical Solution Beta oxidation is the process by which Fatty acids in the form of Acyl-CoA molecules are broken down in Mitochondria and/or in Peroxisomes to Evaporation is the process by which Molecules in a Liquid state (e [7]
• The chemical process of filtration. Filtration is a mechanical or physical operation which is used for the separation of solids from fluids (liquids or gases by interposing a medium to fluid flow through which the fluid [8]
• Pure distillation (impure distillation methods were known to the Babylonians, Greeks and Egyptians since ancient times, but Geber was the first to introduce distillation apparatus and techniques which were able to fully purify chemical substances). Distillation is a method of separating Mixtures based on differences in their volatilities in a boiling liquid mixture Babylonia was an Amorite state in lower Mesopotamia (modern southern Iraq) with Babylon as its capital The Greeks ( Greek: Έλληνες) are a Nation and Ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and neighbouring regions This article is about the contemporary North African ethnic group A chemical substance is a Material with a definite chemical composition.
• The distillation and production of numerous chemical substances. A chemical substance is a Material with a definite chemical composition.

Jabir's teacher, Ja'far al-Sadiq, refuted Aristotle's theory of the four classical elements and discovered that each one is made up of different chemical elements:

"I wonder how a man like Aristotle could say that in the world there are only four elements - Earth, Water, Fire, and Air. Jaʿfar al-Sadiq (702-765 in accurate transliteration Jaʿfar al-Ṣādiq Arabic: جعفر الصادق in full Jaʿfar ibn Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Husayn Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. Many ancient philosophies used a set of archetypal classical "elements" to explain patterns in Nature. A chemical element is a type of Atom that is distinguished by its Atomic number; that is by the number of Protons in its nucleus. Earth, home and origin of humanity has often been worshipped in its own right with its own unique spiritual tradition Water has been important to all peoples of the earth and it is rich in spiritual tradition Fire has been an important part of many cultures and religions from pre-history to modern day and was vital to the development of civilization In traditional cultures air is often seen as a universal power or pure substance The Earth is not an element. EARTH was a short-lived Japanese vocal trio which released 6 singles and 1 album between 2000 and 2001 It contains many elements. Each metal, which is in the earth, is an element. The M acro E xpansion T emplate A ttribute L anguage complements TAL, providing macros which allow the reuse of code across "[9]

Al-Sadiq also developed a particle theory, which he described as follows:

"The universe was born out of a tiny particle, which had two opposite poles. Particle physics is a branch of Physics that studies the elementary constituents of Matter and Radiation, and the interactions between them A subatomic particle is an elementary or composite Particle smaller than an Atom. That particle produced an atom. History See also Atomic theory, Atomism The concept that matter is composed of discrete units and cannot be divided into arbitrarily tiny In this way matter came into being. Matter is commonly defined as being anything that has mass and that takes up space. Then the matter diversified. This diversification was caused by the density or rarity of the atoms. The density of a material is defined as its Mass per unit Volume: \rho = \frac{m}{V} Different materials usually have different "[9]

Al-Sadiq also wrote a theory on the opacity and transparency of materials. Opacity is the measure of impenetrability to electromagnetic or other kinds of radiation especially visible Light. In Optics, transparency (also called pellucidity) is the Material property of allowing Materials are physical Substances used as inputs to production or Manufacturing. He stated that materials which are solid and absorbent are opaque, and materials which are solid and repellent are more or less transparent. A solid' object is in the States of matter characterized by resistance to Deformation and changes of Volume. He also stated that opaque materials absorb heat. In Physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is Energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in Temperature [9]

Al-Kindi, who was a chemist and an opponent of alchemy, was the first to refute the study of traditional alchemy and the theory of the transmutation of metals into more precious metals such as gold or silver. ( أبو يوسف يعقوب إبن إسحاق الكندي) (c A chemist is a Scientist trained in the Science of Chemistry. Alchemy a part of the Occult Tradition is both a philosophy and a practice with an ultimately unknown aim involving the improvement of the alchemist as well as the making of The philosopher's stone (lapis philosophorum Greek: Chrysopoeia) is a Legendary substance supposedly capable of turning inexpensive Metals Gold (ˈɡoʊld is a Chemical element with the symbol Au (from its Latin name aurum) and Atomic number 79 Silver (ˈsɪlvɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol " Ag " (argentum from the Ancient Greek: ἀργήντος - argēntos gen [10] Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī,[11] Avicenna[12] and Ibn Khaldun were also opponents of alchemy who refuted the theory of the transmutation of metals. TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> ( Persian /ابو علی الحسین ابن عبدالله ابن سینا (born Ibn Khaldūn or Ibn Khaldoun (full name أبو زيد عبد الرحمن بن محمد بن خلدون,, ( May 27, 1332 AD/732 AH &ndash March 19

Another influential Muslim chemist was al-Razi (Rhazes), who in his Doubts about Galen, was the first to prove both Aristotle's theory of classical elements and Galen's theory of humorism wrong using an experimental method. Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. Many ancient philosophies used a set of archetypal classical "elements" to explain patterns in Nature. Galen ( Greek: Γαληνός Galēnos; Latin: Claudius Galenus, Aelius Galenus, Claudius Aelius Galenus, or Humorism, or humoralism, was a theory of the makeup and workings of the human body adopted by Greek and Roman physicians and philosophers He carried out an experiment which would upset these theories by inserting a liquid with a different temperature into a body resulting in an increase or decrease of bodily heat, which resembled the temperature of that particular fluid. Al-Razi noted particularly that a warm drink would heat up the body to a degree much higher than its own natural temperature, thus the drink would trigger a response from the body, rather than transferring only its own warmth or coldness to it. Al-Razi's chemical experiments further suggested other qualities of matter, such as "oiliness" and "sulfurousness", or inflammability and salinity, which were not readily explained by the traditional fire, water, earth and air division of elements. An oil is a substance that is in a viscous Liquid state ( "oily") at ambient temperatures or slightly warmer and is Sulfur or sulphur (ˈsʌlfɚ see spelling below) is the Chemical element that has the Atomic number 16 Flammability is the ease with which a substance will ignite causing Fire or Combustion. Salinity is the Saltiness or dissolved salt content of a body of Water. [13] Al-Razi was also the first to:

• Distill petroleum. Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit
• Invent kerosene and kerosene lamps. Kerosene, sometimes spelled kerosine in scientific and industrial usage is a Combustible Hydrocarbon liquid The kerosene lamp (widely known in Britain as a paraffin lamp) is any type of lighting device which uses Kerosene (paraffin as a fuel
• Invent soap bars and modern recipes for soap. SOAP (see below for name and origins is a protocol for exchanging XML -based messages over Computer networks normally using
• Produce antiseptics. Antiseptics (from Greek αντί - anti, '"against" + σηπτικός - septikos, "putrefactive" are antimicrobial
• Invent numerous chemical processes such as sublimation. Sublimation of an element or compound is a transition from the Solid to Gas phase with no intermediate liquid stage

In the 13th century Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī stated an early version of the law of conservation of mass, noting that a body of matter is able to change, but is not able to disappear. The law of conservation of mass/matter, also known as law of mass/matter conservation (or the Lomonosov - Lavoisier law says that the Mass of Matter is commonly defined as being anything that has mass and that takes up space. [14]

From the 12th century, the writings of Jabir, al-Kindi, al-Razi and Avicenna became widely known in Europe during the Arabic-Latin translation movement and later through the Latin writings of a pseudo-Geber, an anonymous alchemist born in 14th century Spain, who translated more of Jabir's books into Latin and wrote some of his own books under the pen name of "Geber". For the 12th century astronomer see Jabir ibn Aflah. For the anonymous 14th century Spanish alchemist see Pseudo-Geber. ( أبو يوسف يعقوب إبن إسحاق الكندي) (c TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> ( Persian /ابو علی الحسین ابن عبدالله ابن سینا (born The Renaissance of the 12th century saw a major search by European scholars for new learning which led them to the Arabic fringes of Europe especially to Islamic Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Pseudo-Geber ("false Geber " is the name assigned by modern scholars to an alchemist born in the 13th century, probably Paul of Taranto in Spain Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula.

### Chemical processes

Geber first invented the following chemical processes in the 8th century:

• Pure distillation (al-taqtir) which could fully purify chemical substances with the alembic. For the 12th century astronomer see Jabir ibn Aflah. For the anonymous 14th century Spanish alchemist see Pseudo-Geber. In a " scientific " sense a chemical process is a method or means of somehow changing one or more Chemicals or Chemical compounds Such a chemical Distillation is a method of separating Mixtures based on differences in their volatilities in a boiling liquid mixture A chemical substance is a Material with a definite chemical composition. An alembic (from Arabic Al-inbiq الأنبيق is an alchemical Still consisting of two Retorts connected by a tube
• Filtration (al-tarshih). Filtration is a mechanical or physical operation which is used for the separation of solids from fluids (liquids or gases by interposing a medium to fluid flow through which the fluid [8]
• Liquefaction, crystallization (al-tabalwur), purification, oxidisation, and evaporation (tabkhir). Crystallization is the (natural or artificial process of formation of solid Crystals precipitating from a homogeneous --> identical Solution Beta oxidation is the process by which Fatty acids in the form of Acyl-CoA molecules are broken down in Mitochondria and/or in Peroxisomes to Evaporation is the process by which Molecules in a Liquid state (e [7]

Al-Razi invented the following chemical processes in the 9th century:

• Dry distillation
• Calcination (al-tashwiya). Dry distillation is the Heating of Solid materials to produce Liquid or Gaseous products (which may condense into solids Calcination (also referred to as calcining) is a thermal treatment process applied to ores and other solid materials in order to bring about a Thermal decomposition [15][16]
• Solution (al-tahlil), sublimation (al-tas'id), amalgamation (al-talghim), ceration (al-tashmi), and a method of converting a substance into a thick paste or fusible solid. In Chemistry, a solution is a Homogeneous Mixture composed of two or more substances Sublimation of an element or compound is a transition from the Solid to Gas phase with no intermediate liquid stage Ceration is a chemical process, a common practice in Alchemy. A fusible alloy, usually Eutectic Alloy is capable of being fused, as well as being liquefied by heat [15]

Other chemical processes introduced by Muslim chemists include:

• Assation (or roasting), cocotion (or digestion), ceration, lavage, solution, mixture, and fixation. Precipitation is the formation of a Solid in a Solution during a Chemical reaction. Ceration is a chemical process, a common practice in Alchemy. In Chemistry, a solution is a Homogeneous Mixture composed of two or more substances In Chemistry, a mixture is a substance made by combining two or more different materials without a chemical reaction occurring (the objects do not bond together Fixation in Alchemy refers to a process by which a previously volatile substance is "transformed" into a form (often Solid) that is not affected [17]
• Destructive distillation was invented by Muslim chemists in the 8th century to produce tar from petroleum. Destructive distillation is the process of Pyrolysis conducted in a distillation apparatus ( Retort) to allow the volatile products to be collected Tar is a viscous black Liquid derived from the Destructive distillation of organic matter Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit [18]
• Steam distillation was invented by Avicenna in the early 11th century for the purpose of producing essential oils. Steam distillation is a special type of Distillation (a separation process) for temperature sensitive materials like natural aromatic compounds TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> ( Persian /ابو علی الحسین ابن عبدالله ابن سینا (born An essential oil is a concentrated Hydrophobic Liquid containing volatile Aroma compounds from Plants They are also known as volatile [19]
• Water purification

### Legacy

Alexander von Humboldt regarded the Muslim chemists as the founders of chemistry. Water purification is the process of removing contaminants and other harmful microorganisms from a raw water source (September 14 1769 &ndash May 6 1859 was a German naturalist and explorer, and the younger brother of the Prussian minister philosopher and linguist [20] Will Durant wrote in The Story of Civilization IV: The Age of Faith:

"Chemistry as a science was almost created by the Moslems; for in this field, where the Greeks (so far as we know) were confined to industrial experience and vague hypothesis, the Saracens introduced precise observation, controlled experiment, and careful records. William James Durant ( November 5, 1885 &ndash November 7, 1981) was a prolific American popularizer in the fields of History The Story of Civilization by Will and Ariel Durant is an eleven-volume set of books A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion The Greeks ( Greek: Έλληνες) are a Nation and Ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and neighbouring regions A hypothesis (from Greek) consists either of a suggested explanation for a phenomenon (an event that is observable or of a reasoned proposal suggesting a possible Saracen was a term used by Europeans in the Middle Ages for Fatimids at first then later for all who professed the religion of Islam. Observation is either an activity of a living being (such as a Human) which senses and assimilates the Knowledge of a Phenomenon, or the recording of data Scientific controls allow Experiments to study one Variable at a time and are a vital part of the Scientific method. They invented and named the alembic (al-anbiq), chemically analyzed innumerable substances, composed lapidaries, distinguished alkalis and acids, investigated their affinities, studied and manufactured hundreds of drugs. An alembic (from Arabic Al-inbiq الأنبيق is an alchemical Still consisting of two Retorts connected by a tube A lapidary (the word means "concerned with stones" is an Artisan who practices the craft of working forming and finishing stone, Mineral, In Chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: Al-Qaly القلي القالي) is a basic, ionic salt of an Alkali metal In Computer science, ACID ( Atomicity Consistency Isolation Durability) is a set of properties that guarantee that Database transactions are A drug, broadly speaking is any chemical substance that when absorbed into the body Alchemy, which the Moslems inherited from Egypt, contributed to chemistry by a thousand incidental discoveries, and by its method, which was the most scientific of all medieval operations. "[21]

Fielding H. Garrison wrote in the History of Medicine:

"The Saracens themselves were the originators not only of algebra, chemistry, and geology, but of many of the so-called improvements or refinements of civilization, such as street lamps, window-panes, firework, stringed instruments, cultivated fruits, perfumes, spices, etc. Colonel Fielding Hudson Garrison, MD ( November 5, 1870 &ndash April 18, 1935) was an acclaimed medical historian, Saracen was a term used by Europeans in the Middle Ages for Fatimids at first then later for all who professed the religion of Islam. Algebra is a branch of Mathematics concerning the study of structure, relation, and Quantity. Chemistry (from Egyptian kēme (chem meaning "earth") is the Science concerned with the composition structure and properties Geology (from Greek γη gê, "earth" and λόγος Logos, "speech" lit A street light, lamppost, street lamp, light standard or lamp standard, is a raised source of Light on the edge of a Road A paned window is a Window that is divided into sections known as panes Originally the meaning pertained to sectioned glass Windows in walls A firework is classified as a low explosive pyrotechnic device used primarily for aesthetic and entertainment purposes A string instrument (or stringed instrument) is a Musical instrument that produces Sound by means of Vibrating strings In the Hornbostel-Sachs Tillage is the agricultural preparation of the Soil by Ploughing ripping or turning it The term fruit has different meanings dependent on context and the term is not synonymous in Food preparation and Biology. Perfume is a mixture of fragrant Essential oils and Aroma compounds Fixatives and Solvents used to give the human body animals objects and living A spice is a dried Seed, Fruit, Root, Bark or vegetative substance used in Nutritionally insignificant quantities as a Food additive . . "[22]

Robert Briffault wrote in The Making of Humanity:

"Chemistry, the rudiments of which arose in the processes employed by Egyptian metallurgists and jewellers combining metals into various alloys and 'tinting' them to resemble gold processes long preserved as a secret monopoly of the priestly colleges, and clad in the usual mystic formulas, developed in the hands of the Arabs into a widespread, organized passion for research which led them to the invention of pure distillation, sublimation, filtration, to the discovery of alcohol, of nitric and sulfuric acids (the only acid known to the ancients was vinegar), of the alkalis, of the salts of mercury, of antimony and bismuth, and laid the basis of all subsequent chemistry and physical research. Robert Briffault ( 1876 - 11 December 1948) was a French novelist historian social anthropologist and surgeon Ancient Egypt was an Ancient Civilization in eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now Metallurgy is a domain of Materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their Jewellery (also spelled jewelry, see spelling differences) is a personal Ornament, such as a necklace ring or bracelet made from Gemstones An alloy is a Solid solution or Homogeneous mixture of two or more elements, at least one of which is a Metal, which itself has Gold (ˈɡoʊld is a Chemical element with the symbol Au (from its Latin name aurum) and Atomic number 79 The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding Distillation is a method of separating Mixtures based on differences in their volatilities in a boiling liquid mixture Sublimation of an element or compound is a transition from the Solid to Gas phase with no intermediate liquid stage Filtration is a mechanical or physical operation which is used for the separation of solids from fluids (liquids or gases by interposing a medium to fluid flow through which the fluid In Chemistry, an alcohol is any Organic compound in which a Hydroxyl group ( - O[[hydrogen H]]) is bound to a Carbon Nitric acid ( H[[nitrate NO3]] also known as Aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is a highly corrosive and Sulfuric (or sulphuric acid, H 2 S[[oxygen O]]4 is a strong Mineral acid. In Computer science, ACID ( Atomicity Consistency Isolation Durability) is a set of properties that guarantee that Database transactions are Vinegar is an acidic liquid processed from the Fermentation of Ethanol in a process that yields its key ingredient Acetic acid (also called ethanoic acid In Chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: Al-Qaly القلي القالي) is a basic, ionic salt of an Alkali metal Salt is a Dietary mineral composed primarily of Sodium chloride that is essential for Animal life but toxic to most land plants Mercury (ˈmɜrkjʊri also called quicksilver or hydrargyrum, is a Chemical element with the symbol Hg ( Latinized hydrargyrum Antimony (IPA (Received Pronunciation, /ˈæntɪmoʊni/ (US is a Chemical element with the symbol Sb (stibium meaning "mark" and Bismuth (ˈbɪzməθ is a Chemical element that has the symbol Bi and Atomic number 83 "[8]

George Sarton, the father of the history of science, wrote in the Introduction to the History of Science:

"We find in his (Jabir, Geber) writings remarkably sound views on methods of chemical research, a theory on the geologic formation of metals (the six metals differ essentially because of different proportions of sulfur and mercury in them); preparation of various substances (e. George Alfred Leon Sarton (1884-1956 was a Belgian -American Polymath, historian of science, and father of the writer May Sarton. Science is a body of empirical, theoretical, and practical knowledge about the natural world, produced by a global community of researchers For the 12th century astronomer see Jabir ibn Aflah. For the anonymous 14th century Spanish alchemist see Pseudo-Geber. Geology (from Greek γη gê, "earth" and λόγος Logos, "speech" lit Sulfur or sulphur (ˈsʌlfɚ see spelling below) is the Chemical element that has the Atomic number 16 Mercury (ˈmɜrkjʊri also called quicksilver or hydrargyrum, is a Chemical element with the symbol Hg ( Latinized hydrargyrum g. , basic lead carbonatic, arsenic and antimony from their sulfides). Cerussite (also known as lead carbonate or White lead ore) is a Mineral consisting of Lead Carbonate (PbCO3 Arsenic (ˈɑrsənɪk is a Chemical element that has the symbol As and Atomic number of 33 Antimony (IPA (Received Pronunciation, /ˈæntɪmoʊni/ (US is a Chemical element with the symbol Sb (stibium meaning "mark" and The term sulfide ( sulphide in British English) refers to several types of Chemical compounds containing Sulfur in its lowest Oxidation "[23]

## Laboratory apparatus

Distillation by alembic. Distillation is a method of separating Mixtures based on differences in their volatilities in a boiling liquid mixture An alembic (from Arabic Al-inbiq الأنبيق is an alchemical Still consisting of two Retorts connected by a tube

### Alembic

The alembic was invented and named by the Muslim chemist Geber. An alembic (from Arabic Al-inbiq الأنبيق is an alchemical Still consisting of two Retorts connected by a tube For the 12th century astronomer see Jabir ibn Aflah. For the anonymous 14th century Spanish alchemist see Pseudo-Geber. [21]

### Conical measure

During his experiments on physics in the early 11th century, Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī invented the conical measure,[24] in order to find the ratio between the weight of a substance in air and the weight of water displaced, and to accurately measure the specific weights of the gemstones and their corresponding metals, which are very close to modern measurements. In scientific inquiry an experiment ( Latin: Ex- periri, "to try out" is a method of investigating particular types of research questions or Physics (Greek Physis - φύσις in everyday terms is the Science of Matter and its motion. A conical measure is a type of Laboratory glassware which consists of a conical cup with a notch on the top to allow for the easy pouring of liquids and graduated markings on [25]

### Hydrostatic balance

The hydrostatic balance was invented by al-Khazini in 1121. Hydrostatic equilibrium occurs when compression due to Gravity is balanced by a Pressure gradient which creates a Pressure gradient force in the opposite Abd al-Rahman al-Khazini ( عبدالرحمن الخزيني) (flourished 1115–1130 was a Muslim scientist, physicist, astronomer, biologist [26]

Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī invented the laboratory flask in the early 11th century. Laboratory flasks are vessels (containers which fall into the category of Laboratory equipment known as glassware. [26]

### Pycnometer

Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī also invented the pycnometer in the early 11th century. [26]

### Retort

The chemical retort used for distillation was invented by Geber as part of the alembic, and was widely used by later Muslim scientists. In a Chemistry laboratory a retort is a glassware device used for Distillation or Dry distillation of substances Distillation is a method of separating Mixtures based on differences in their volatilities in a boiling liquid mixture For the 12th century astronomer see Jabir ibn Aflah. For the anonymous 14th century Spanish alchemist see Pseudo-Geber. An alembic (from Arabic Al-inbiq الأنبيق is an alchemical Still consisting of two Retorts connected by a tube The retort was later introduced to the West by 1570. [27]

### Steelyard

The steelyard was also invented by al-Khazini in 1121. The Steelyard, from the German Stalhof, was in the Middle Ages the main trading base of the Hanseatic League in London. Abd al-Rahman al-Khazini ( عبدالرحمن الخزيني) (flourished 1115–1130 was a Muslim scientist, physicist, astronomer, biologist [26]

### Still

The still was invented by Geber as part of the alembic. A still is an apparatus used to distill Miscible or immiscible (eg An alembic (from Arabic Al-inbiq الأنبيق is an alchemical Still consisting of two Retorts connected by a tube [21]

### Thermometer

Avicenna was the first to employ an air thermometer in his experiments on physics. The thermometer is a device that measures Temperature or Temperature gradient using a variety of different principles it comes from the Greek roots In scientific inquiry an experiment ( Latin: Ex- periri, "to try out" is a method of investigating particular types of research questions or Physics (Greek Physis - φύσις in everyday terms is the Science of Matter and its motion. [28]

### Other equipment

Muslim chemists and engineers invented the cucurbit and aludel, and the equipment needed for melting metals such as furnaces and crucibles. An alembic (from Arabic Al-inbiq الأنبيق is an alchemical Still consisting of two Retorts connected by a tube Aludel s in medieval Chemistry, are subliming Pots The term refers to a range of earthen tubes or pots without bottoms fitted one over another and diminishing Melting is a process that results in the phase change of a substance from a Solid to a Liquid. A furnace is a device used for Heating The name derives from Latin fornax, Oven. A crucible is a cup-shaped piece of laboratory object Laboratory equipment used to contain Chemical compounds when heating them to very high Temperatures [16]

In his Secretum secretorum (Latinized title), Al-Razi (Rhazes) described the following tools that were invented by him and his Muslim predecessors (Calid, Geber and al-Kindi) for melting substances (li-tadhwib): hearth (kur), bellows (minfakh aw ziqq), crucible (bawtaqa), the but bar but (in Arabic) or botus barbatus (in Latin), tongs (masik aq kalbatan), scissors (miqta), hammer (mukassir), file (mibrad). Calid is a Medieval Latin transcription of the Arabic name Khalid (or Khaled For the 12th century astronomer see Jabir ibn Aflah. For the anonymous 14th century Spanish alchemist see Pseudo-Geber. ( أبو يوسف يعقوب إبن إسحاق الكندي) (c Melting is a process that results in the phase change of a substance from a Solid to a Liquid. In common historic and modern usage a hearth (Har-th is a Brick - or stone -lined Fireplace or Oven used for Cooking and/or Heating A bellows is a device for delivering pressurized Air in a controlled quantity to a controlled location A crucible is a cup-shaped piece of laboratory object Laboratory equipment used to contain Chemical compounds when heating them to very high Temperatures Tongs are gripping and lifting Tools of which there are many forms adapted to their specific use Scissors are hand operated cutting instruments consisting of a pair of Metal Blades connected in such a way that the blades meet and cut materials placed A hammer is a tool meant to deliver an impact to an object The most common uses are for driving nails fitting parts and breaking up objects A file (or hand-file) is a Hand Tool used to shape Material by cutting [15]

## Chemical substances

### Acetic acid

Acetic acid was first concentrated from vinegar through distillation by Geber in the 8th century. Acetic acid, also known as ethanoic acid, is an organic chemical compound, giving Vinegar its sour taste Vinegar is an acidic liquid processed from the Fermentation of Ethanol in a process that yields its key ingredient Acetic acid (also called ethanoic acid Distillation is a method of separating Mixtures based on differences in their volatilities in a boiling liquid mixture For the 12th century astronomer see Jabir ibn Aflah. For the anonymous 14th century Spanish alchemist see Pseudo-Geber. [29]

### Derivative and artificial substances

In the 10th century Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi wrote that he and his Muslim predecessors (Calid, Geber and al-Kindi) invented the following derivative and artificial chemical substances: lead(II) oxide (PbO), red lead (Pb3O4), tin(II) oxide (Isfidaj), copper acetate (Zaniar), copper(II) oxide (CuO), lead sulfide, zinc oxide, bismuth oxide, antimony oxide, iron rust, iron acetate, Daws (a contituent of steel), cinnabar (HgS), arsenic trioxide (As2O3), alkali (al-Qili), sodium hydroxide (caustic soda), and Qalimiya (anything that separates from metals during their purification). Calid is a Medieval Latin transcription of the Arabic name Khalid (or Khaled ( أبو يوسف يعقوب إبن إسحاق الكندي) (c In Chemistry, a derivative is a compound that is formed from a similar compound or a compound that can be imagined to arise from another compound if one A chemical substance is a Material with a definite chemical composition. Lead(II oxide is the Chemical compound with the formula Red lead, also called minium, lead tetroxide or triplumbic tetroxide, is a bright red or orange Crystalline or Amorphous Pigment Tin(II oxide (stannous oxide is a compound of tin and oxygen where tin has the oxidation state of +2 Copper(II acetate, also referred to as cupric acetate, is the Chemical compound with the formula Cu (OAc2 where AcO- Copper(II oxide or cupric oxide (CuO is the higher Oxide of Copper. Zinc oxide is a Chemical compound with the formula ZnO It is nearly insoluble in water but soluble in Acids and Bases It occurs Bismuth(III oxide is the most industrially important compound of Bismuth. Antimony (IPA (Received Pronunciation, /ˈæntɪmoʊni/ (US is a Chemical element with the symbol Sb (stibium meaning "mark" and Rust is a general term for a series of Iron oxides, usually red oxides formed by the reaction of Iron with Oxygen in the presence of water or air Iron (III acetate, commonly known as basic iron acetate is a Chemical compound with the formula OAc (OAc is CH3CO2- Steel is an Alloy consisting mostly of Iron, with a Carbon content between 0 Cinnabar, sometimes written cinnabarite, is a name applied to red Mercury(II sulfide ( Hg[[sulfide S]] or native Vermilion, the common Arsenic trioxide is the most important commercial compound of Arsenic, and the main starting material for arsenic chemistry In Chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: Al-Qaly القلي القالي) is a basic, ionic salt of an Alkali metal Sodium hydroxide ( Na[[hydroxide OH]]) also known as Lye, caustic soda and (incorrectly according to IUPAC nomenclature Purification in a chemical context is the physical separation of a chemical substance of interest from foreign or contaminating substances [30]

### Distilled alcohol

The isolation of ethanol (alcohol) as a pure compound was first achieved by Muslim chemists who developed the art of distillation during the Abbasid caliphate, the most notable of whom were Jabir ibn Hayyan (Geber), Al-Kindi (Alkindus) and al-Razi (Rhazes). In Chemistry, an alcohol is any Organic compound in which a Hydroxyl group ( - O[[hydrogen H]]) is bound to a Carbon Distillation is a method of separating Mixtures based on differences in their volatilities in a boiling liquid mixture A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfa) is the political leadership of the Muslim community in classical and medieval Islamic history For the 12th century astronomer see Jabir ibn Aflah. For the anonymous 14th century Spanish alchemist see Pseudo-Geber. ( أبو يوسف يعقوب إبن إسحاق الكندي) (c The writings attributed to Jabir ibn Hayyan (721-815) mention the flammable vapors of boiled wine. Al-Kindi (801-873) unambiguously described the distillation of wine. Distillation is a method of separating Mixtures based on differences in their volatilities in a boiling liquid mixture [31] This may have been for the purpose of separating alcoholic content from drinks due to the Islamic prohibition of alcohol consumption.

Muslim chemists were the first to produce fully purified distilled alcohol from the 8th century and manufactured them on a large scale from at least the 10th century, for use in medicine and the chemical and pharmaceutical industries, though it was rarely used for drinking due to the Islamic prohibition of alcohol consumption. The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals Drinking is the act of consuming a liquid through the mouth Water, for example is required for many of life's physiological processes and excess or decreased water intake [16][18] Alcohol was still consumed by non-Muslims in the Islamic world however.

"The distillation of wine and the properties of alcohol were known to Islamic chemists from the eighth century. Ahmad Y Hassan أحمد يوسف الحسن(born 1925 is a chevalier of the Légion d'honneur and a historian of Arabic and Islamic science and technology Distillation is a method of separating Mixtures based on differences in their volatilities in a boiling liquid mixture Wine is an Alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation of Grape juice In Chemistry, an alcohol is any Organic compound in which a Hydroxyl group ( - O[[hydrogen H]]) is bound to a Carbon For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. A chemist is a Scientist trained in the Science of Chemistry. The prohibition of wine in Islam did not mean that wine was not produced or consumed or that Arab alchemists did not subject it to their distillation processes. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Jabir ibn Hayyan described a cooling technique which can be applied to the distillation of alcohol. "[31]

### Medicinal substances

Muslim chemists and physicians discovered and produced at least 2,000 medicinal substances for use in medicine and the pharmaceutical sciences. A chemical substance is a Material with a definite chemical composition. The pharmaceutical sciences are a group of Interdisciplinary areas of study involved with the design action delivery disposition and use of Drugs This field draws [32]

### Natural substances

In the 10th century Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi classified the natural chemical substances that were discovered by him and his Muslim predecessors (mainly Calid, Geber, al-Kindi and al-Tamimi) as follows:[30]

• Four spirits: mercury, sal ammoniac, arsenic, sulfur. A chemical substance is a Material with a definite chemical composition. Calid is a Medieval Latin transcription of the Arabic name Khalid (or Khaled ( أبو يوسف يعقوب إبن إسحاق الكندي) (c This is not the Sub-clan of Quraish, for that see Banu Taim Banī Tamīm or Banu Tamim or Banu Tameem Mercury (ˈmɜrkjʊri also called quicksilver or hydrargyrum, is a Chemical element with the symbol Hg ( Latinized hydrargyrum Sal ammoniac is a rare mineral composed of Ammonium chloride, NH4Cl Arsenic (ˈɑrsənɪk is a Chemical element that has the symbol As and Atomic number of 33 Sulfur or sulphur (ˈsʌlfɚ see spelling below) is the Chemical element that has the Atomic number 16
• Eight fusible metals: gold, silver, copper, iron, tin, lead, mercury. Gold (ˈɡoʊld is a Chemical element with the symbol Au (from its Latin name aurum) and Atomic number 79 Silver (ˈsɪlvɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol " Ag " (argentum from the Ancient Greek: ἀργήντος - argēntos gen Copper (ˈkɒpɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol Cu (cuprum and Atomic number 29 Iron (ˈаɪɚn is a Chemical element with the symbol Fe (ferrum and Atomic number 26 Tin is a Chemical element with the symbol Sn (stannum and Atomic number 50 Characteristics Lead has a dull luster and is a dense, Ductile, very soft highly
• Thirteen stones: marqashisha, maghnisiya, daws (a constituent of iron and steel), tutiya, lapis lazuli, malachite green, turquoise, hematite, arsenic oxide, lead sulfide, talq (mica and asbestos), gypsum, glass. In Geology, rock is a naturally occurring aggregate of Minerals and/or Mineraloids The Earth's outer solid layer the ‘ Lithosphere Steel is an Alloy consisting mostly of Iron, with a Carbon content between 0 Malachite green, also called aniline green, basic green 4, diamond green B, or victoria green B, IUPAC name 4--NN-dimethyl-aniline Turquoise is an opaque blue-to-green Mineral that is a hydrous Phosphate of Copper and Aluminium, with the Chemical Hematite, also spelt hæmatite, is the Mineral form of Iron(III oxide (Fe2O3 one of several Iron oxides An oxide is a Chemical compound containing at least one Oxygen atom as well as at least one other element The word "mica" is thought to be derived from the Latin word la micare, "glitteren" in reference to the brilliant appearance of this mineral (especially Asbestos is a group of Minerals with long thin fibrous Crystals The word "asbestos" (῾ἀσβεστος is derived from a Greek adjective Gypsum is a very soft Mineral composed of Calcium sulfate dihydrate with the Chemical formula Ca[[sulfur S]] O 4·2 Glass in the common sense refers to a Hard, Brittle, transparent Solid, such as that used for Windows many
• Six vitriols: black vitriol, alum, qalqand, qalqadis, qalqatar, suri. Sulfuric (or sulphuric acid, H 2 S[[oxygen O]]4 is a strong Mineral acid. For the purely-slang term alum meaning "graduate" see Alumnus. Suri is the Persian Adjective for Red. See Chaharshanbe Suri (the last Wednesday before the Persian New Year or Noruz)
• Seven borates: borax, bread borax, natron, nitrate, sodium nitrate, potassium nitrate, sodium borate. Borates in Chemistry are Chemical compounds containing Boron bonded to three Oxygen atoms written as B(OR3 Borax (from Persian burah) also known as sodium borate, sodium tetraborate, or disodium tetraborate, is an important Boron Bread is a Staple food prepared by Baking a Dough of Flour and Water. Natron is a naturally occurring mixture of Sodium carbonate decahydrate ( Na 2 C[[oxygen O]]3 · 10 H2O In Inorganic chemistry, a nitrate is a salt of Nitric acid with an Ion composed of one Nitrogen and three Oxygen atoms Sodium nitrate is the Chemical compound with the formula NaNO3 Potassium nitrate is a Chemical compound with the Chemical formula K[[Nitrogen N]] O 3 Sodium (ˈsoʊdiəm is an element which has the symbol Na( Latin natrium, from Arabic natrun) atomic number 11 atomic mass 22
• Thirteen salts: lead(II) acetate (sweet), magnesium sulfate (bitter), andarani salt, tabarzad, potassium nitrate, naphthenate, black salt (Indian), salt of egg, alkali (al-qali), salt of urine, calcium hydroxide (slaked lime), salt of oak ashes, natron. A salt, in Chemistry, is defined as the product formed from the neutralisation reaction of Acids and bases. Lead(II acetate is a Chemical compound, a white crystalline substance with a Sweetish taste Magnesium sulfate is a Chemical compound containing Magnesium and Sulfate, with the formula MgSO4 Salt is a Dietary mineral composed primarily of Sodium chloride that is essential for Animal life but toxic to most land plants Potassium nitrate is a Chemical compound with the Chemical formula K[[Nitrogen N]] O 3 Naphthenates are the salts of Naphthenic acids which are an acidic fraction from Petroleum processing and which are composed of a mixture of organic acids Black salt ( Hindi काला नमक   kala namak or sanchal) is an unrefined mineral salt that is actually pinkish gray and has In Chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: Al-Qaly القلي القالي) is a basic, ionic salt of an Alkali metal Urine is a liquid waste product of the body secreted by the Kidneys by a process of filtration from Blood and Excreted through the Urethra. Calcium hydroxide, traditionally called slaked lime, hydrated lime, or pickling lime, is a Chemical compound with the chemical formula The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of about 400 species of Trees and Shrubs in the Genus Quercus (from Latin

### Vegetable and animal substances

Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi writes that the only vegetable substance used by Muslim alchemists are the ashes of the Ushnan plant, from which they produced alkali metals and alkali salts. The term " vegetable " generally means the edible parts of Plants The definition of the word is traditional rather than Scientific, however Plants are living Organisms belonging to the kingdom Plantae. Trends The alkali metals show a number of trends when moving down the group - for instance decreasing electronegativity increasing reactivity and decreasing melting and boiling In Chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: Al-Qaly القلي القالي) is a basic, ionic salt of an Alkali metal Razi also lists ten animal substances that were used by him and his contemporary alchemists: hair, skulls, brains, bile, blood, milk, urine, eggs, nacre (mother of pearl) and horn. Hair is a keratinised protein filament that grows through the epidermis from follicles deep within the Dermis. The brain is the center of the Nervous system in animals All Vertebrates and the majority of Invertebrates have a brain Bile or gall is a bitter yellow or green Alkaline fluid secreted by Hepatocytes from the Liver of most Vertebrates In many species Blood is a specialized Bodily fluid that delivers necessary substances to the body's cells such as nutrients and oxygen—and transports Waste products Milk is an opaque white liquid produced by the Mammary glands of female Mammals (including Monotremes. Urine is a liquid waste product of the body secreted by the Kidneys by a process of filtration from Blood and Excreted through the Urethra. Nacre, also known as mother of pearl, is an organic-inorganic Composite material produced by some Mollusks as an inner shell layer A horn is a pointed projection of the Skin on the head of various Mammals consisting of a covering of horn ( Keratin and other Proteins He writes that hair, brains, bile, eggs, skulls and blood were used to prepare sal ammoniac. Sal ammoniac is a rare mineral composed of Ammonium chloride, NH4Cl [30]

### Other substances

Through their experiments with various chemical compounds, Arabic chemists first produced many other chemical substances, including:

• Arsenic, alkali, alkali salt, rice vinegar, boraxes, potassium nitrate, sulfur and purified sal ammoniac by Geber. A chemical substance is a Material with a definite chemical composition. Arsenic (ˈɑrsənɪk is a Chemical element that has the symbol As and Atomic number of 33 In Chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: Al-Qaly القلي القالي) is a basic, ionic salt of an Alkali metal Alkali salts or base (basic salts are salts which has basic ions such as Hydroxides or Carbonates. Rice vinegar is a Vinegar made from fermented Rice or Rice wine in China, Korea, and Japan. Borax (from Persian burah) also known as sodium borate, sodium tetraborate, or disodium tetraborate, is an important Boron Potassium nitrate is a Chemical compound with the Chemical formula K[[Nitrogen N]] O 3 Sulfur or sulphur (ˈsʌlfɚ see spelling below) is the Chemical element that has the Atomic number 16 Sal ammoniac is a rare mineral composed of Ammonium chloride, NH4Cl For the 12th century astronomer see Jabir ibn Aflah. For the anonymous 14th century Spanish alchemist see Pseudo-Geber. [16]
• Sal nitrum and vitriol by al-Razi. Nitrogen (ˈnaɪtɹəʤɪn is a Chemical element that has the symbol N and Atomic number 7 and Atomic weight 14 Sulfuric (or sulphuric acid, H 2 S[[oxygen O]]4 is a strong Mineral acid. [16]
• Ethanol, sulfuric acid, ammonia, mercury, camphor, pomades, and syrups. Sulfuric (or sulphuric acid, H 2 S[[oxygen O]]4 is a strong Mineral acid. Ammonia is a compound with the formula N[[hydrogen H3]] It is normally encountered as a Gas with a characteristic pungent Odor Mercury (ˈmɜrkjʊri also called quicksilver or hydrargyrum, is a Chemical element with the symbol Hg ( Latinized hydrargyrum } Camphor is a waxy white or transparent solid with a strong aromatic odor Pomade (also called pomatum) is a greasy or waxy substance that is used to style Hair. In Cooking, a syrup (from Arabic' ar شراب sharab, beverage via Latin siropus) is a thick Viscous Liquid [33]
• Lead carbonatic, arsenic, and antimony. Cerussite (also known as lead carbonate or White lead ore) is a Mineral consisting of Lead Carbonate (PbCO3 Arsenic (ˈɑrsənɪk is a Chemical element that has the symbol As and Atomic number of 33 Antimony (IPA (Received Pronunciation, /ˈæntɪmoʊni/ (US is a Chemical element with the symbol Sb (stibium meaning "mark" and [23]
• Nitric and sulfuric acids, alkali, the salts of mercury, antimony, and bismuth. Nitric acid ( H[[nitrate NO3]] also known as Aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is a highly corrosive and Sulfuric (or sulphuric acid, H 2 S[[oxygen O]]4 is a strong Mineral acid. In Chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: Al-Qaly القلي القالي) is a basic, ionic salt of an Alkali metal Salt is a Dietary mineral composed primarily of Sodium chloride that is essential for Animal life but toxic to most land plants Mercury (ˈmɜrkjʊri also called quicksilver or hydrargyrum, is a Chemical element with the symbol Hg ( Latinized hydrargyrum Antimony (IPA (Received Pronunciation, /ˈæntɪmoʊni/ (US is a Chemical element with the symbol Sb (stibium meaning "mark" and Bismuth (ˈbɪzməθ is a Chemical element that has the symbol Bi and Atomic number 83 [8]
• Aqua regia, alum, sal ammoniac, stones, sulfur, salts, and spirits of mercury. Aqua regia ( Latin for royal water) is a highly corrosive fuming yellow or red solution For the purely-slang term alum meaning "graduate" see Alumnus. Sal ammoniac is a rare mineral composed of Ammonium chloride, NH4Cl In Geology, rock is a naturally occurring aggregate of Minerals and/or Mineraloids The Earth's outer solid layer the ‘ Lithosphere Sulfur or sulphur (ˈsʌlfɚ see spelling below) is the Chemical element that has the Atomic number 16 Salt is a Dietary mineral composed primarily of Sodium chloride that is essential for Animal life but toxic to most land plants Mercury (ˈmɜrkjʊri also called quicksilver or hydrargyrum, is a Chemical element with the symbol Hg ( Latinized hydrargyrum [16]

Geber was also the first to classify all seven classical metals: gold, silver, tin, lead, mercury, iron and copper. The classical metals are the seven metals which were discovered and put to use during antiquity and the Middle Ages. Gold (ˈɡoʊld is a Chemical element with the symbol Au (from its Latin name aurum) and Atomic number 79 Silver (ˈsɪlvɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol " Ag " (argentum from the Ancient Greek: ἀργήντος - argēntos gen Tin is a Chemical element with the symbol Sn (stannum and Atomic number 50 Characteristics Lead has a dull luster and is a dense, Ductile, very soft highly Mercury (ˈmɜrkjʊri also called quicksilver or hydrargyrum, is a Chemical element with the symbol Hg ( Latinized hydrargyrum Iron (ˈаɪɚn is a Chemical element with the symbol Fe (ferrum and Atomic number 26 Copper (ˈkɒpɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol Cu (cuprum and Atomic number 29 [16]

## Chemical industries

The following chemical substances were invented by Muslim chemists for use in the chemical industries:

### Artificial pearl and purified pearl

In his Kitab al-Durra al-Maknuna (The Book of the Hidden Pearl), Geber described the first recipes for the manufacture of artificial pearls and the purifying of pearls that were discoloured from the sea or from grease. A chemical substance is a Material with a definite chemical composition. The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, "making by hand" is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale A pearl is a hard roundish object produced within the soft tissue (specifically the mantle) of a living shelled Mollusk. [34]

### Ceramics

From between the eighth and eighteenth centuries, the use of glazed ceramics was prevalent in Islamic art, usually assuming the form of elaborate pottery. Glaze is a layer or coating of a Vitreous substance which has been fired to fuse to a ceramic object to color decorate strengthen or waterproof it Pottery is the Ceramic ware made by potters It also refers to a group of materials that includes Earthenware, Stoneware [35] Tin-opacified glazing was one of the earliest new technologies developed by the Islamic potters. Tin-glazing is the process of giving Ceramic items a tin-based glaze which is white shiny and opaque normally applied to red or buff Earthenware. The first Islamic opaque glazes can be found as blue-painted ware in Basra, dating to around the 8th century. Basra ( BGN: AlBasrah also called Basorah Abillah and Uruk or IRAQ The name that British colony has adopted for Basra Another significant contribution was the development of stonepaste ceramics, originating from 9th century Iraq. Stoneware a Vitreous or semivitreous ceramic ware of fine texture made primarily from nonrefactory fire clay [36] Other centers for innovative ceramic pottery in the Islamic world included Fustat (from 975 to 1075), Damascus (from 1100 to around 1600) and Tabriz (from 1470 to 1550). Fustat (also Fostat, Al Fustat, Misr al-Fustat and Fustat-Misr, and in Arabic الفسطاط was the first Capital of Egypt Tabriz ( تبریز, تبریز) is the largest city in northwestern Iran. [37]

### Cheese glue

In The Book of the Hidden Pearl, Geber described the first recipes for the manufacture of glue from cheese. Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, "making by hand" is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale Glue or adhesive is a compound that adheres or bonds two items together Cheese is a Food made from Milk, usually the milk of cows, Buffalo, Goats or sheep, by coagulation. [34]

### Dyed gemstones and dyed pearls

In The Book of the Hidden Pearl, Geber described the first recipes for the dying and artificial colouring of gemstones and pearls. Death is the termination of the biological functions that define living Organisms It refers both to a specific A gemstone or gem, also called a precious or semi-precious stone, is a piece of attractive Mineral, which &mdash when cut and polished &mdash A pearl is a hard roundish object produced within the soft tissue (specifically the mantle) of a living shelled Mollusk. [34]

### Essential oil

Essential oils were first produced by Avicenna in the early 11th century, using steam distillation, for use in aromatherapy and the drinking and perfumery industries. An essential oil is a concentrated Hydrophobic Liquid containing volatile Aroma compounds from Plants They are also known as volatile TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> ( Persian /ابو علی الحسین ابن عبدالله ابن سینا (born Steam distillation is a special type of Distillation (a separation process) for temperature sensitive materials like natural aromatic compounds Aromatherapy is a form of Alternative medicine that uses volatile liquid plant materials known as Essential oils (EOs and other aromatic compounds from plants for Drinking is the act of consuming a liquid through the mouth Water, for example is required for many of life's physiological processes and excess or decreased water intake Perfume is a mixture of fragrant Essential oils and Aroma compounds Fixatives and Solvents used to give the human body animals objects and living [19]

### Explosive fireworks and firecrackers

Fireworks and firecrackers, which may have been adopted from China, were first composed of explosive gunpowder compositions (around 75% saltpetre, 10% sulfur, and 15% carbon) in the Islamic world and were first described by Hasan al-Rammah of Syria in 1270. A firework is classified as a low explosive pyrotechnic device used primarily for aesthetic and entertainment purposes A firecracker (also known as a cracker, noise maker, banger or bunger) is a small Explosive device primarily designed to produce An explosive material is a material that either is chemically or otherwise Energetically unstable or produces a sudden expansion of the material usually accompanied Gunpowder is a an explosive mixture of Sulfur, Charcoal and Potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre/saltpeter that burns rapidly producing volumes Sulfur or sulphur (ˈsʌlfɚ see spelling below) is the Chemical element that has the Atomic number 16 Carbon (kɑɹbən is a Chemical element with the symbol C and its Atomic number is 6 Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية [38]

### Fireproof clothing and dissolved talc

Egyptian soldiers at the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260 were the first to wear fireproof clothing and the first to smear dissolved talc on their hands, as forms of fire protection from gunpowder. The Battle of Ain Jalut (or Ayn Jalut, in Arabic ar عين جالوت the "Eye of Goliath" or the "Spring of Goliath" took place on 3 September 1260 between "Fireproof" redirects here For the album see Fireproof (album. Talc (derived from the Persian via Arabic talq) is a Mineral composed of Hydrated Magnesium Silicate with Fire protection is the study and practice of mitigating the unwanted effects of Fires ref>NFPA Fire Protection Handbook pg [38]

### Kerosene and Kerosene lamp

Kerosene was produced from the distillation of petroleum and was first described by al-Razi (Rhazes) in 9th century Baghdad. Kerosene, sometimes spelled kerosine in scientific and industrial usage is a Combustible Hydrocarbon liquid Distillation is a method of separating Mixtures based on differences in their volatilities in a boiling liquid mixture Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit Baghdad (بغداد) is the Capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate, with which it is also coterminous In his Kitab al-Asrar (Book of Secrets), he described two methods for the production of kerosene. One method involved using clay as an absorbent, while the other method involved using ammonium chloride (sal ammoniac). Clay is a naturally occurring material composed primarily of fine-grained Minerals which show plasticity through a variable range of Water content, and Ammonium chloride ( N[[Hydrogen H]]4 Cl) (also Sal Ammoniac, salmiac, nushadir salt, zalmiak, sal armagnac Al-Razi also described the first kerosene lamps (naffatah) used for heating and lighting in his Kitab al-Asrar (Book of Secrets). The kerosene lamp (widely known in Britain as a paraffin lamp) is any type of lighting device which uses Kerosene (paraffin as a fuel Lighting includes both artificial Light sources such as lamps and natural illumination of interiors from Daylight. These were used in the oil lamp industry. An oil lamp is a simple vessel used to produce light continuously for a period of time from a fuel source [39]

### Lustreware

Lustreware was invented in Iraq by the Arabian chemist Jabir ibn Hayyan (Geber) in the 8th century during the Abbasid caliphate. Lusterware is a type of Pottery or Porcelain with a Metallic glaze that gives the effect of Iridescence, produced by metallic Oxides For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding For the 12th century astronomer see Jabir ibn Aflah. For the anonymous 14th century Spanish alchemist see Pseudo-Geber. A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfa) is the political leadership of the Muslim community in classical and medieval Islamic history [40][41]

### Mineral acids

The important mineral acids of nitric acid, sulfuric acid, and hydrochloric acid, were all first produced by Geber. A mineral acid is an Acid derived by Chemical reaction from inorganic Minerals as opposed to Organic acids These have Hydrogen Nitric acid ( H[[nitrate NO3]] also known as Aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is a highly corrosive and Sulfuric (or sulphuric acid, H 2 S[[oxygen O]]4 is a strong Mineral acid. Hydrochloric acid is the Solution of Hydrogen chloride ( H[[Chlorine Cl]] in water For the 12th century astronomer see Jabir ibn Aflah. For the anonymous 14th century Spanish alchemist see Pseudo-Geber. These have remained some of the most common products in the chemical industry for over a thousand years. [16]

### Naphtha and tar

From the 8th century the streets of Baghdad were the first to be paved with tar, derived from petroleum through destructive distillation. Baghdad (بغداد) is the Capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate, with which it is also coterminous Tar is a viscous black Liquid derived from the Destructive distillation of organic matter Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit Destructive distillation is the process of Pyrolysis conducted in a distillation apparatus ( Retort) to allow the volatile products to be collected In the 9th century oil fields were exploited in the area around modern Baku, Azerbaijan, to produce the earliest naphtha. An oil field is a region with an abundance of Oil wells extracting Petroleum (crude oil from below ground Baku (Bakı sometimes known as Baqy, Baky, Baki or Bakü, is the capital the largest city and the largest port of Azerbaijan Azerbaijan ( English; Azərbaycan officially the Republic of Azerbaijan (Azərbaycan Respublikası is the largest and most populous country in the South Naphtha normally refers to a number of different flammable liquid mixtures of hydrocarbons i These fields were described by Masudi in the 10th century, and by Marco Polo in the 13th century, who described the output of those oil wells as hundreds of shiploads. TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn al-Husayn íbn Ali al-Mas'udi (transl) (born c Marco Polo ( September 15 1254 – January 9 1324 at earliest but no later than June 1325 was a Venetian trader and explorer West Texas PumpjackJPG|thumb|right|300px|This Pumpjack located south of Midland TX is a common sight in West Texas. [18]

### Petrol

Muslim chemists were the first to produce petrol from crude oil, using the process of distillation. Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit Distillation is a method of separating Mixtures based on differences in their volatilities in a boiling liquid mixture [42]

### Plated mail

Plated mail was invented by Geber in The Book of the Hidden Pearl for use in armours (jawasin), helmets (bid) and shields (daraq). Plated mail (sometimes called plated chainmail, splinted mail or splinted chainmail) is a type of mail with embedded plates Armour (or armor) is protective covering most commonly manufactured from metals to prevent damage from being inflicted to an individual or a vehicle through use of direct contact A helmet is a form of Protective gear worn on the head to protect it from injuries a variation of the hat A shield is a protective device meant to intercept attacks The term often refers to a device that is held in the hand as opposed to Armour or a Bullet proof vest [34]

### Rosewater

Rosewater was first produced by Muslim chemists through the distillation of roses, for use in the drinking and perfumery industries. thumb|right|250px|Rose water Rose water or rose syrup (گلاب Golâb, Gül suyu ماء ورد Māʾ ward, Urdu: گلاب رس Distillation is a method of separating Mixtures based on differences in their volatilities in a boiling liquid mixture A rose is a perennial flowering Shrub or vine of the Genus Rosa, within the family Rosaceae, that contains over 100 species Drinking is the act of consuming a liquid through the mouth Water, for example is required for many of life's physiological processes and excess or decreased water intake Perfume is a mixture of fragrant Essential oils and Aroma compounds Fixatives and Solvents used to give the human body animals objects and living [16]

## Drinking industry

### Coffee

An Arab named Khalid was tending his goats in the Kaffa region of Ethiopia, when he noticed his animals became livelier after eating a certain berry. The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding Kaffa was a province on the southwestern side of Ethiopia; its capital city was Jimma. NOTE This intro is the result of careful NPOV work Please do not make potentially controversial edits to it without first discussing on the talk page He boiled the berries to make the first coffee. CoFFEE is an Open source Software for computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL in a digital classroom Certainly the first record of the drink is of beans exported from Yemen to Ethiopia where Sufis drank it to stay awake all night to pray on special occasions. NOTE This intro is the result of careful NPOV work Please do not make potentially controversial edits to it without first discussing on the talk page Sufism ( تصوّف - taṣawwuf, Persian: صوفی‌گری sufigari, Turkish: tasavvuf, Urdu: تصوف By the late 15th century, it had arrived in Makkah and Turkey from where it made its way to Venice in 1645. Mecca ˈmɛkə also spelled Makkah ˈmækə (in full Makkah Al-Mukarramah (Arabic mækːæ(t ælmʊkarˑamæ مكّة المكرمة, literally Honored Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the It was brought to England in 1650 by a Greek named Pasqua Rosee who opened the first coffee house in Lombard Street in the City of London. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland There are at least three famous Lombard Street s Lombard Street San Francisco, famed for its twists and turns Lombard Street London, leading For London as a whole see the main article London. The City of London is a geographically The Arabic qahwa became the Turkish kahve, then the Italian caffè, and then English coffee. Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Caffè is the Italian word for Coffee, (likely from " Kaffa " the region in Ethiopia where coffee originated and may indicate either the Italian [7][43]

### Distilled water and purified water

Arab chemists were the first to produce distilled water and purified water, used for water supply systems and for long journeys across deserts where the supplies were uncertain. Purified water is water from any source that is physically processed to remove impurities Water purification is the process of removing contaminants and other harmful microorganisms from a raw water source Water supply is the process of self-provision or provision by third parties of water of various qualities to different users [33]

### Soft drink

Sherbet, the first juiced and carbonated soft drink, made of crushed fruit, herbs, or flowers, has long existed as one of the most popular beverages from and of the Muslim world, winning over Western figures such as Lord Byron. Şerbet ( Turkish) (Soda powder Etymology Turkish & Persian Turkish şerbet from Persian & Urdu شربت Hindi sharbat from Arabic JUICE is a widely used non-commercial Software package for editing and analysing phytosociological data Soft drink is a beverage that does not contain Alcohol. Carbonated soft drinks are commonly known as soda soda pop pop, or Muslims developed a variety of juices to make their sharab, an Arabic word from which the Italian sorbetto, French sorbet and English sherbet were derived. Today, this juice is known by a multitude of names, is associated with numerous cultural traditions, and is produced by countries ranging from India to the United States of America. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country [44][45]

### Syrups

The medieval Muslim sources contain many recipes for drink syrups that can be kept outside the refrigerator for weeks or months. In Cooking, a syrup (from Arabic' ar شراب sharab, beverage via Latin siropus) is a thick Viscous Liquid A refrigerator (often called a " fridge " for short is a cooling appliance comprising a thermally insulated compartment and a Heat pump - [45]

## Glass industry

### Glass factories

The first industrial complex for glass and pottery production was built in Ar-Raqqah, Syria, in the 8th century. Glass in the common sense refers to a Hard, Brittle, transparent Solid, such as that used for Windows many Pottery is the Ceramic ware made by potters It also refers to a group of materials that includes Earthenware, Stoneware Ar-Raqqah ( الرقة, also spelled Rakka) is a city in north central Syria located on the north bank of the Euphrates River, about 160 km Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية Extensive experimentation was carried out at the complex, which was two kilometres in length, and a variety of innovative high-purity glass were developed there. The kilometre ( American spelling: kilometer) symbol km is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to one thousand Two other similar complexes have also been discovered, and nearly three hundred new chemical recipes for glass are known to have been produced at all three sites. [46]

### Artificial gemstone

Jabir first described the production of high quality coloured glass cut into artificial gemstones. A gemstone or gem, also called a precious or semi-precious stone, is a piece of attractive Mineral, which &mdash when cut and polished &mdash [47]

### Coloured glass and stained glass

Stained glass was first produced Muslim architects in Southwest Asia using coloured glass rather than stone. For the Blackford Oakes novel see Stained Glass (novel The term stained glass refers either to the material of coloured Glass or to the art Islamic architecture has encompassed a wide range of both secular and religious styles from the foundation of Islam to the present day influencing the design and construction Southwest Asia or Southwestern Asia (largely overlapping with the Middle East) is the southwestern portion of Asia. In Geology, rock is a naturally occurring aggregate of Minerals and/or Mineraloids The Earth's outer solid layer the ‘ Lithosphere In the 8th century, the Arab chemist Jabir ibn Hayyan (Geber) scientifically described 46 original recipes for producing coloured glass in Kitab al-Durra al-Maknuna (The Book of the Hidden Pearl), in addition to 12 recipes inserted by al-Marrakishi in a later edition of the book. [48]

### Clear, colourless, high-purity glass

Clear, colourless, high-purity glass were first produced by Muslims in the 9th century, such as the quartz glass invented by Abbas Ibn Firnas. Fused quartz and fused silica are types of Glass containing primarily Silica in amorphous (non- Crystalline form Abbas Ibn Firnas (810 &ndash 887 AD) was also known as Abbas Qasim Ibn Firnas and العباس بن فرناس ( Arabic language) The Arab poet al-Buhturi (820-897) describes the clarity of such glass as follows:

"Its colour hides the glass as if it is standing in it without a container. Arabic poetry ( Arabic, الِشعر العربي ash-shiru 'l-arabiy) is the earliest form of Arabic literature. Buhturi, Arabic, أبو الوليد بن عبيدالله البحتري التنوخي ( al-Walīd ibn `Ubayd Allāh al-Buhturī) (820 - 897 was an "[47]

### Clear glass mirror

By the 11th century clear glass mirrors were being produced in Islamic Spain. A mirror is an object with a surface that has good Specular reflection; that is it is smooth enough to form an Image. Al-Andalus (الأندلس was the Arabic name given to those parts of the Iberian Peninsula governed by Muslims or

### Glass factory

The first glass factories were built by Muslim craftsmen in the Islamic world. A factory (previously manufactory) or manufacturing plant is an industrial Building where workers manufacture goods The first glass factories in Europe were later built in the 11th century by Egyptian craftsmen in Corinth, Greece. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. Corinth, or Korinth ( Greek Κόρινθος ( is a city in Greece. Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία [16]

### Refracting parabolic mirror

The refracting parabolic mirror was first described by Ibn Sahl in his On the Burning Instruments in the 10th century, and later described again in Ibn al-Haytham's On Burning Mirrors and Book of Optics (1021). Refraction is the change in direction of a Wave due to a change in its Speed. A parabolic reflector (or dish or mirror) is a Parabola -shaped reflective device used to collect or distribute Energy such as This article is about the physicist For the physician see Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari. TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> ( Arabic: ابو علی، حسن بن حسن بن هيثم Latinized The Book of Optics ( Arabic: Kitab al-Manazir, Latin: De Aspectibus or Opticae Thesaurus Alhazeni [49]

### Silica glass and Quartz glass

Silica glass and Quartz glass, a clear, colourless, high-purity glass, was invented by Abbas Ibn Firnas (810-887), who was the first to produce glass from sand and stones such as quartz. The Chemical compound silicon dioxide, also known as silica or silox (from the Latin " Silex " is an Oxide Fused quartz and fused silica are types of Glass containing primarily Silica in amorphous (non- Crystalline form Abbas Ibn Firnas (810 &ndash 887 AD) was also known as Abbas Qasim Ibn Firnas and العباس بن فرناس ( Arabic language) Sand is a naturally occurring Granular material composed of finely divided rock and Mineral particles In Geology, rock is a naturally occurring aggregate of Minerals and/or Mineraloids The Earth's outer solid layer the ‘ Lithosphere Quartz (from German) is the most abundant Mineral in the Earth 's Continental crust (although Feldspar is more common in [50]

## Hygiene industries

### Cosmetics

Early forms of cosmetics had been used since ancient times, but these were usually created primarily for the purpose of beautification and often used harmful substances. Beautification is the process of making visual improvements in a Town or City, typically to an urban area This changed with Muslim cosmetologists who emphasized hygiene, due to religious requirements, and invented various healthy and hygienic cosmetics that are still used today. Hygiene refers to practices associated with ensuring good health and cleanliness [51]

### Soap

True soaps made from vegetable oils (such as olive oil), aromatic oils (such as thyme oil) and Sodium Lye (al-Soda al-Kawia) were first produced by Muslim chemists in the medieval Islamic world. SOAP (see below for name and origins is a protocol for exchanging XML -based messages over Computer networks normally using Olive oil is a fruit oil obtained from the olive ( Olea europaea; family Oleaceae along with Lilacs Jasmine and ash trees Fragrance oil (s also known as aroma oils, aromatic oils, and flavor oils, are blended synthetic Aroma compounds or natural Essential Thyme (ˈtaɪm is a well known herb in common usage the name may refer to either the any or all members of the plant Genus Thymus, Sodium hydroxide ( Na[[hydroxide OH]]) also known as Lye, caustic soda and (incorrectly according to IUPAC nomenclature [52] Due to washing and bathing being religious requirements for Muslims, they invented the recipe for true soap, which is still in use today, and they invented the soap bar. [7] The formula for soap used since then hasn't changed and are identical to the current soap sold in modern times.

From the beginning of the 7th century soap was produced in Nablus (Palestine), Kufa (Iraq) and Basra (Iraq). Nablus ( sometimes Nābulus; Arabic:; næːblʊs is a Palestinian city in the northern West Bank, approximately north of Jerusalem Palestine is a name which has been widely used since Roman times to refer to the region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River. Kufa ( Arabic, ar الكوفة) is a city in modern Iraq, about 170 km south of Baghdad, and 10 km northeast of Najaf. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. Basra ( BGN: AlBasrah also called Basorah Abillah and Uruk or IRAQ The name that British colony has adopted for Basra Soaps, as we know them today, are descendants of historical Arabian Soaps. Arabian Soap was perfumed and colored, while some of the soaps were liquid and others were solid. Perfume is a mixture of fragrant Essential oils and Aroma compounds Fixatives and Solvents used to give the human body animals objects and living Liquid is one of the principal States of matter. A liquid is a Fluid that has the particles loose and can freely form a distinct surface at the boundaries of A solid' object is in the States of matter characterized by resistance to Deformation and changes of Volume. They also had special soap for shaving. Shaving is the removal of hair by using Razor or any other kind of bladed implement to slice it down to the level of the skin It was commercially sold for 3 Dirhams (0. 3 Dinars) a piece in 981 AD. The Dinar is the name of the official currency in several countries A manuscript of Al-Razi (Rhazes) contains various modern recipes for soap. A recently discovered manuscript from the 13th century details more recipes for soap making, e. g. take some sesame oil, a sprinkle of potash, alkali and some lime, mix them all together, and boil. Sesame oil (also known as "gingelly oil" or "til oil" is an edible Vegetable oil derived from Sesame seeds Besides being used as a Cooking Potash (or carbonate of potash) is an impure form of Potassium carbonate ( K 2 CO3) In Chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: Al-Qaly القلي القالي) is a basic, ionic salt of an Alkali metal Lime is a general term for various naturally occurring Minerals and materials derived from them in which Carbonates Oxides and Hydroxides of When cooked, they are poured into molds and left to set, leaving hard soap (soap bar). WikipediaManual_of_Style#National_varieties_of_English --> Molds (or [51]

### Perfumery

Islamic cultures contributed significantly to the development of perfumery in both perfecting the extraction of fragrances through steam distillation and by introducing new raw ingredients. Perfume is a mixture of fragrant Essential oils and Aroma compounds Fixatives and Solvents used to give the human body animals objects and living Steam distillation is a special type of Distillation (a separation process) for temperature sensitive materials like natural aromatic compounds Both the raw ingredients and distillation technology significantly influenced western perfumery and scientific developments, particularly chemistry. Science (from the Latin scientia, meaning " Knowledge " or "knowing" is the effort to discover, and increase human understanding Chemistry (from Egyptian kēme (chem meaning "earth") is the Science concerned with the composition structure and properties

As traders, Islamic cultures such as the Arabs and Persians had wider access to different spices, herbals, and other fragrance materials. In addition to trading them, many of these exotic materials were cultivated by the Muslims such that they could be successfully grown outside of their native climates. Two examples of this include jasmine, which is native to South and Southeast Asia, and various citrus fruits, which are native to East Asia. Both of these ingredients are still highly important in modern perfumery.

In Islamic culture, perfume usage has been documented as far back as the 7th century and its usage is considered a religious duty. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Muhammad said:

"The taking of a bath on Friday is compulsory for every male Muslim who has attained the age of puberty and (also) the cleaning of his teeth with Siwak, and the using of perfume if it is available. IMPORTANT PLEASE READ ##### For all questions relating to the addition of (pbuh peace be upon him or other honorifics This article is about Hygiene in Islam. The miswak ( miswaak, siwak) is a natural Toothbrush made from the twigs "

Such rituals gave incentives to scholars to search and develop a cheaper way to produce incenses and in mass production. Two talented chemists, Jabir ibn Hayyan (born 722, Iraq), and al-Kindi (born 801, Iraq) established the perfume industry. For the 12th century astronomer see Jabir ibn Aflah. For the anonymous 14th century Spanish alchemist see Pseudo-Geber. ( أبو يوسف يعقوب إبن إسحاق الكندي) (c Jabir developed many techniques, including distillation, evaporation and filtration, which enabled the collection of the odour of plants into a vapour that could be collected in the form of water or oil. [53] Al-Kindi, however, was the real founder of the perfume industry, as he carried out extensive research and experiments in combining various plants and other sources to produce a variety of scent products. He elaborated a vast number of ‘recipes’ for a wide range of perfumes, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. His work in the laboratory is reported by a witness who said:

"I received the following description, or recipe, from Abu Yusuf Ya'qub b. Ishaq al-Kindi, and I saw him making it and giving it an addition in my presence.

The writer goes on in the same section to speak of the preparation of a perfume called ghaliya, which contained musk, amber and other ingredients, and reveals a long list of technical names of drugs and apparatus.

Musk and floral perfumes were brought to Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries from Arabia, through trade with the Islamic world and with the returning Crusaders. Those who traded for these were most often also involved in trade for spices and dyestuffs. There are records of the Pepperers Guild of London, going back to 1179, which show them trading with Muslims in spices, perfume ingredients and dyes. [54]

### Shampoo

Shampoo was first developed by the Bengali Muslim Sake Dean Mahomet. Shampoo is a Hair care product used for the removal of oils, dirt skin particles Dandruff, environmental pollutants and other contaminant particles that The Bengali people are the ethnic community from Bengal (divided between Bangladesh and India) on the Indian subcontinent with a history dating Sake Dean Mahomet (also Sake Dean Mahomed or in Arabic, Shaykh Din Muhammad) (শেখ দীন মহাম্মদ (1759–1851 was He introduced it to England when he opened "Mahomed's Indian Vapour Baths" in Brighton seafront in 1759. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Brighton ( is a town on the south coast of England and with its neighbour Hove, forms the city of Brighton and Hove. He was later appointed as a "Shampooing Surgeon" to Kings George IV and William IV. William IV (William Henry 21 August 1765 &ndash 20 June 1837 was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of Hanover from 26 June 1830 until [7]

## Gunpowder compositions

### Purified potassium nitrate

Potassium nitrate (saltpetre) was known to the Arabs in an early time as it was known to Khalid ibn Yazid (Calid) (d. Potassium nitrate is a Chemical compound with the Chemical formula K[[Nitrogen N]] O 3 Calid is a Medieval Latin transcription of the Arabic name Khalid (or Khaled 709) and was known under various names, it is used as a flux in metallurgical operations and for producing nitric acid and aqua regia. Recipes for these uses are found in the works of Jabir ibn Hayyan (Geber, d. For the 12th century astronomer see Jabir ibn Aflah. For the anonymous 14th century Spanish alchemist see Pseudo-Geber. 815), Abu Bakr al-Razi (Rhazes, d. 932) and other alchemists. Arabs were the first to purify saltpeter to the weapons-grade purity as potassium nitrate must be purified to be used effectively. There are two celebrated works which described the purification processes: one is by Ibn Bakhtawayh in his book al-Muqaddimat (1029), and the other is by the Arab chemist and engineer Hassan al-Rammah of Syria in his book al-Furusiyya wa al-Manasib al-Harbiyya (1270). The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية The first complete purification process for potassium nitrate was described by al-Rammah, who first described the use of potassium carbonate (in the form of wood ashes) to remove calcium and magnesium salts from the potassium nitrate. Carbonate of potash redirects here For one of potassium carbonate's impure forms see Potash. Wood is hard fibrous lignified structural tissue produced as secondary Xylem in the stems of Woody plants notably trees but also shrubs Calcium carbonate is a Chemical compound with the Chemical formula Ca[[Carbon C]] O 3 Magnesium carbonate, MgCO3 is a white Solid that occurs in nature as a Mineral. Salt is a Dietary mineral composed primarily of Sodium chloride that is essential for Animal life but toxic to most land plants [55][38]

A complete gunpowder recipe, which uses purified saltpetre for the first time, exists in a 10th century Arabic manuscript. Gunpowder is a an explosive mixture of Sulfur, Charcoal and Potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre/saltpeter that burns rapidly producing volumes [56] In another manuscript from the 10th century there is a full description of gunpowder and its use in cannons. | NOTE Throughout this article "cannon" is used as BOTH the || singular and plural [57]

### Explosive gunpowder

The ideal composition for explosive gunpowder used in modern times is 75% potassium nitrate (saltpetre), 10% sulfur, and 15% carbon. An explosive material is a material that either is chemically or otherwise Energetically unstable or produces a sudden expansion of the material usually accompanied Gunpowder is a an explosive mixture of Sulfur, Charcoal and Potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre/saltpeter that burns rapidly producing volumes Potassium nitrate is a Chemical compound with the Chemical formula K[[Nitrogen N]] O 3 Sulfur or sulphur (ˈsʌlfɚ see spelling below) is the Chemical element that has the Atomic number 16 Carbon (kɑɹbən is a Chemical element with the symbol C and its Atomic number is 6 Several almost identical compositions were first described by the Arab engineer Hasan al-Rammah as a recipe for the rockets (tayyar) he described in his al-Furusiyya wa al-Manasib al-Harbiyya (The Book of Military Horsemanship and Ingenious War Devices) in 1270. The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding A rocket or rocket vehicle is a Missile, Aircraft or other Vehicle which obtains Thrust by the reaction of the Several examples include a tayyar "rocket" (75% saltpetre, 8% sulfur, 15% carbon) and the tayyar buruq "lightning rocket" (74% saltpetre, 10% sulfur, 15% carbon). He states in his book that many of these recipes were known to his father and grandfather, hence dating back to at least the late 12th century. Compositions for an explosive gunpowder effect were not known in China or Europe until the 14th century. [16][38]

### Explosive cannon

The first cannons (midfa) employing explosive gunpowder were used by the Egyptians to repel the Mongols at the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260, and again in 1304. | NOTE Throughout this article "cannon" is used as BOTH the || singular and plural This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. The Battle of Ain Jalut (or Ayn Jalut, in Arabic ar عين جالوت the "Eye of Goliath" or the "Spring of Goliath" took place on 3 September 1260 between [38] The gunpowder compositions used for the cannons at these battles were later described in several manuscripts in the early 14th century. [38] Four different gunpowder compositions were used at the battles, with the most explosive cannon having a gunpowder composition (74% saltpetre, 11% sulfur, 15% carbon) again almost identical to idea compositions for explosive gunpowder used in modern times. [38]

## References

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"Ibn Firnas was a polymath: a physician, a rather bad poet, the first to make glass from stones (quartz?), a student of music, and inventor of some sort of metronome. A polymath ( Greek polymathēs, πολυμαθής "having learned much" is a person whose knowledge is not restricted to one subject area Islamic poetry is poetry written by Muslims on the topic of Islam. In Geology, rock is a naturally occurring aggregate of Minerals and/or Mineraloids The Earth's outer solid layer the ‘ Lithosphere Islamic music is Muslim religious Music, as sung or played in public services or private devotions A metronome is any device that produces a regulated aural visual or tactile pulse to establish a steady Tempo in the performance of music "

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