Einstein in 1947.
|Born||March 14, 1879|
Ulm, Württemberg, Germany
|Died||April 18, 1955 (aged 76)|
Princeton, New Jersey, USA
|Residence||Germany, Italy, Switzerland, USA|
|Citizenship||German (1879–96, 1914–33)|
|Institutions||Swiss Patent Office (Berne)|
University of Zurich
Charles University, Prague
Prussian Academy of Sciences
Kaiser Wilhelm Institute
University of Leiden
Institute for Advanced Study
|Alma mater||ETH Zurich|
University of Zurich
|Doctoral advisor||Alfred Kleiner|
|Other academic advisors||Heinrich Friedrich Weber|
|Known for||General relativity|
Einstein field equations
Unified Field Theory
|Notable awards||Nobel Prize in Physics (1921)|
Copley Medal (1925)
Max Planck Medal (1929)
|Religious stance||See main text|
Albert Einstein (German: IPA: [ˈalbɐt ˈaɪ̯nʃtaɪ̯n] ; English: IPA: /ˈælbɝt ˈaɪnstaɪn/) (March 14, 1879 – April 18, 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist. Events 1489 - The Queen of Cyprus, Catherine Cornaro, sells her kingdom to Venice. Year 1879 ( MDCCCLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Ulm (ˈʊlm is a City in the German Bundesland of Baden-Württemberg, situated on the River Danube. Württemberg, formerly known as Wirtemberg, is an area and a former state in Swabia, a region in southwestern Germany. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Events 1025 - Bolesław Chrobry is crowned in Gniezno, becoming the first King of Poland. Year 1955 ( MCMLV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar) See also Princeton Township New Jersey, Borough of Princeton New Jersey Princeton Borough New Jersey Princeton Township New Jersey this New Jersey ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim ( Hebrew: אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים, ˌaʃkəˈnazim sing Physics (Greek Physis - φύσις in everyday terms is the Science of Matter and its motion. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation A patent office is a Governmental or Intergovernmental organization which controls the issue of Patents List of patent offices For a The city of Berne or Bern (, Berne, Berna, Romansh: Berna, Bernese German: Bärn) is the Bundesstadt ( Federal The University of Zurich ( German: Universität Zürich) located in the city of Zurich, is the largest University in Switzerland Charles University in Prague (also simply Charles University; Univerzita Karlova v Praze Universitas Carolina Karls-Universität zu Prag is the oldest and largest The Prussian Academy of Sciences (Preußische Akademie der Wissenschaften was an Academy established in Berlin on July 11 1700. The Kaiser Wilhelm Gesellschaft is a German entity formally known as the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften e Leiden University (Universiteit Leiden located in the city of Leiden, is the oldest University in The Netherlands. The Institute for Advanced Study, located in Princeton New Jersey, United States is a center for theoretical research Alma mater is Latin for "nourishing mother" It was used in Ancient Rome as a title for the mother Goddess, and in Medieval The University of Zurich ( German: Universität Zürich) located in the city of Zurich, is the largest University in Switzerland A doctorate is an Academic degree that indicates the highest level of academic achievement Alfred Kleiner ( April 24, 1849 &ndash July 3, 1916) was Professor of Experimental Physics at the University of Alma Dohee, and was Heinrich Friedrich Weber (1843&ndash1912 was a Physicist born in the town of Magdala, near Weimar. General relativity or the general theory of relativity is the geometric theory of Gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1916 Special relativity (SR (also known as the special theory of relativity or STR) is the Physical theory of Measurement in Inertial This article is about the physical phenomenon for the stochastic process see Wiener process. Introduction When a Metallic surface is exposed to Electromagnetic radiation above a certain threshold Frequency, the light is absorbed and Electrons In Physics, mass–energy equivalence is the concept that for particles slower than light any Mass has an associated Energy and vice versa. The Einstein field equations ( EFE) or Einstein's equations are a set of ten equations in Einstein 's theory of General relativity in which the Since the 1800s some physicists have attempted to develop a single theoretical framework that can account for the Fundamental forces of nature – a Unified field theory. In Statistical mechanics, Bose - Einstein statistics (or more colloquially B-E statistics determines the statistical distribution of In Quantum mechanics, the EPR paradox is a Thought experiment which challenged long-held ideas about the relation between the observed values of physical quantities Marcel Grossmann (born in Budapest on April 9, 1878 - died in Zurich on September 7, 1936) was a Mathematician David Joseph Bohm ( December 20 1917, Wilkes-Barre Pennsylvania – October 27 1992, London) was an American The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik is awarded once a year by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. The Copley Medal is a scientific award for distinguished achievement in any field of Science established by the Royal Society of London in 1731 The Max Planck medal is an award for extraordinary achievements in Theoretical physics. Albert Einstein ( German: ˈalbɐt ˈaɪ̯nʃtaɪ̯n; English: ˈælbɝt ˈaɪnstaɪn (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955 was a German -born theoretical The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Events 1489 - The Queen of Cyprus, Catherine Cornaro, sells her kingdom to Venice. Year 1879 ( MDCCCLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Events 1025 - Bolesław Chrobry is crowned in Gniezno, becoming the first King of Poland. Year 1955 ( MCMLV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar) Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Theoretical physics employs Mathematical models and Abstractions of Physics in an attempt to explain experimental data taken of the natural world He is best known for his theory of relativity and specifically mass–energy equivalence, E = mc2. This page is about the scientific concept of relativity for philosophical or sociological theories about relativity see Relativism. In Physics, mass–energy equivalence is the concept that for particles slower than light any Mass has an associated Energy and vice versa. Einstein received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect. The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik is awarded once a year by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Introduction When a Metallic surface is exposed to Electromagnetic radiation above a certain threshold Frequency, the light is absorbed and Electrons "
Einstein's many contributions to physics include his special theory of relativity, which reconciled mechanics with electromagnetism, and his general theory of relativity, which extended the principle of relativity to non-uniform motion, creating a new theory of gravitation. Physics (Greek Physis - φύσις in everyday terms is the Science of Matter and its motion. Special relativity (SR (also known as the special theory of relativity or STR) is the Physical theory of Measurement in Inertial Mechanics ( Greek) is the branch of Physics concerned with the behaviour of physical bodies when subjected to Forces or displacements Electromagnetism is the Physics of the Electromagnetic field: a field which exerts a Force on particles that possess the property of General relativity or the general theory of relativity is the geometric theory of Gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1916 A principle of relativity is a criterion for judging physical theories, stating that they are inadequate if they do not prescribe the exact same laws of physics in Gravitation is a natural Phenomenon by which objects with Mass attract one another His other contributions include relativistic cosmology, capillary action, critical opalescence, classical problems of statistical mechanics and their application to quantum theory, an explanation of the Brownian movement of molecules, atomic transition probabilities, the quantum theory of a monatomic gas, thermal properties of light with low radiation density (which laid the foundation for the photon theory), a theory of radiation including stimulated emission, the conception of a unified field theory, and the geometrization of physics. Physical cosmology, as a branch of Astronomy, is the study of the large-scale structure of the Universe and is concerned with fundamental questions about its Capillary action, capillarity, capillary motion, or wicking is the ability of a substance to draw another substance into it Critical opalescence is a phenomenon which arises in the region of a continuous or second-order Phase transition. Statistical mechanics is the application of Probability theory, which includes mathematical tools for dealing with large populations to the field of Mechanics Quantum mechanics is the study of mechanical systems whose dimensions are close to the Atomic scale such as Molecules Atoms Electrons This article is about the physical phenomenon for the stochastic process see Wiener process. In Chemistry, a molecule is defined as a sufficiently stable electrically neutral group of at least two Atoms in a definite arrangement held together by Transition rule is a non-standard and rarely used name for Selection rule, as applied to radiative transitions. Probability is the likelihood or chance that something is the case or will happen In Physics and Chemistry, monatomic is a combination of the words "mono" and "atomic" and means "single Atom. In Physics, thermodynamics (from the Greek θερμη therme meaning " Heat " and δυναμις dynamis meaning " Light, or visible light, is Electromagnetic radiation of a Wavelength that is visible to the Human eye (about 400–700 Radiation, as in Physics, is Energy in the form of waves or moving Subatomic particles emitted by an atom or other body as it changes from a higher energy In Physics, the photon is the Elementary particle responsible for electromagnetic phenomena In Optics, stimulated emission is the process by which an electron perturbed by a Photon having the correct energy may drop to a lower Energy level resulting Since the 1800s some physicists have attempted to develop a single theoretical framework that can account for the Fundamental forces of nature – a Unified field theory.
Einstein published over 300 scientific works and over 150 non-scientific works. Albert Einstein (1879–1955 was a renowned theoretical physicist of the 20th century who is best known for his theories of Special relativity and General  Einstein is revered by the physics community, and in 1999 Time magazine named him the "Person of the Century". Time (trademarked in capitals as TIME) is a weekly American Newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and ''Time'' Person of the Century was created to honor one of the Time 100 The Most Important People of the Century. In wider culture the name "Einstein" has become synonymous with genius. A genius is a person of great Intelligence or remarkable abilities in a specific subject who shows an exceptional natural capacity of intellect and/or ability especially
Albert Einstein was born into a Jewish family in Ulm, Württemberg, Germany on March 14, 1879. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ Ulm (ˈʊlm is a City in the German Bundesland of Baden-Württemberg, situated on the River Danube. Württemberg, formerly known as Wirtemberg, is an area and a former state in Swabia, a region in southwestern Germany. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Events 1489 - The Queen of Cyprus, Catherine Cornaro, sells her kingdom to Venice. Year 1879 ( MDCCCLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common His father was Hermann Einstein, a salesman and engineer. His mother was Pauline Einstein (née Koch). Pauline Einstein, née Koch, the mother of In 1880, the family moved to Munich, where his father and his uncle founded a company, Elektrotechnische Fabrik J. Munich (München; Minga is the capital city of Bavaria, Germany. Einstein & Cie, that manufactured electrical equipment.
The Einsteins were not observant of Jewish religious practices, and Albert attended a Catholic elementary school. This article is about Catholic schools in general for specific schools named Catholic High School, see Catholic High School (disambiguation. Although Einstein had early speech difficulties, he was a top student in elementary school. Language delay is a failure to develop Language abilities on the usual developmental timetable 
When Einstein was five, his father showed him a pocket compass. A compass, magnetic compass or mariner's compass is a navigational instrument for determining direction relative to the earth's Magnetic poles It consists Einstein realized that something in empty space was moving the needle and later stated that this experience made "a deep and lasting impression".  At his mother's insistence, he took violin lessons starting at age six, and although he disliked them and eventually quit, he later took great pleasure in Mozart's violin sonatas. The violin is a bowed String instrument with four strings usually tuned in Perfect fifths It is the smallest and highest-pitched member A violin sonata is a musical composition for solo Violin, which is nearly always accompanied by a Piano or other keyboard instrument or by Figured bass As he grew, Einstein built models and mechanical devices for fun, and began to show a talent for mathematics. See also Scale model A physical model is a smaller or larger physical copy of an object A machine is any device that uses Energy to perform some activity
In 1889, family friend Max Talmud, a medical student, introduced the ten-year-old Einstein to key science, mathematics, and philosophy texts, including Kant's Critique of Pure Reason and Euclid's Elements (Einstein called it the "holy little geometry book"). Immanuel Kant (ɪmanuəl kant 22 April 1724 12 February 1804 was an 18th-century German Philosopher from the Prussian city of Königsberg The Critique of Pure Reason (Kritik der reinen Vernunft by Immanuel Kant, first published in 1781, second edition 1787, is one Euclid ( Greek:.) fl 300 BC also known as Euclid of Alexandria, is often referred to as the Father of Geometry Euclid's Elements ( Greek:) is a mathematical and geometric Treatise consisting of 13 books written by the Greek  From Euclid, Einstein began to understand deductive reasoning, and by the age of twelve, he had learned Euclidean geometry. Deductive reasoning is Reasoning which uses deductive Arguments to move from given statements ( Premises to Conclusions which must be true if the Euclidean geometry is a mathematical system attributed to the Greek Mathematician Euclid of Alexandria. Soon thereafter he began to investigate calculus. Calculus ( Latin, calculus, a small stone used for counting is a branch of Mathematics that includes the study of limits, Derivatives
In his early teens, Einstein attended the progressive Luitpold Gymnasium. The Luitpold- Gymnasium is a Secondary school in Munich, Germany. His father intended for him to pursue electrical engineering, but Einstein clashed with authorities and resented the school regimen. Electrical engineering, sometimes referred to as electrical and electronic engineering, is a field of Engineering that deals with the study and application of He later wrote that the spirit of learning and creative thought were lost in strict rote learning. Rote learning is a Learning technique which avoids understanding of a subject and instead focuses on memorization.
In 1894, when Einstein was fifteen, his father's business failed, and the Einstein family moved to Italy, first to Milan and then, after a few months, to Pavia. Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. Pavia (pronounced Pavìa,) the ancient Ticinum, is a town and Comune of south-western Lombardy, northern Italy, 35 km south During this time, Einstein wrote his first scientific work, "The Investigation of the State of Aether in Magnetic Fields". See also the disambiguation page for Aether. Alchemy, Natural philosophy, and early modern Physics proposed the existence In Physics, a magnetic field is a Vector field that permeates space and which can exert a magnetic force on moving Electric charges  Einstein had been left behind in Munich to finish high school, but in the spring of 1895, he withdrew to join his family in Pavia, convincing the school to let him go by using a doctor's note.
Rather than completing high school, Einstein decided to apply directly to the ETH Zurich, the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich, Switzerland. Zürich (, Zürich German: Züri, Zurich, Zurigo; in English generally Zurich) is the largest city in Switzerland and capital of the Lacking a school certificate, he was required to take an entrance examination, which he did not pass, although he got exceptional marks in mathematics and physics.  Einstein wrote that it was in that same year, at age 16, that he first performed his famous thought experiment visualizing traveling alongside a beam of light (Einstein 1979). A thought experiment (from the German Gedankenexperiment) is a proposal for an Experiment that would test a Hypothesis or Theory
The Einsteins sent Albert to Aarau, Switzerland to finish secondary school. Aarau is the capital of the northern Swiss canton of Aargau. The city is also the capital of the district of Aarau. While lodging with the family of Professor Jost Winteler, he fell in love with the family's daughter, Marie. (Albert's sister Maja later married Paul Winteler. Maja Einstein is the younger sister of great scientist Albert Einstein. ) In Aarau, Einstein studied Maxwell's electromagnetic theory. James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 &ndash 5 November 1879 was a Scottish mathematician and theoretical physicist. In Classical electromagnetism, Maxwell's equations are a set of four Partial differential equations that describe the properties of the electric In 1896, he graduated at age 17, renounced his German citizenship to avoid military service (with his father's approval), and finally enrolled in the mathematics program at ETH. Marie moved to Olsberg, Switzerland for a teaching post. Olsberg is a municipality in the district of Rheinfelden in the canton of Aargau in Switzerland.
In 1896, Einstein's future wife, Mileva Marić, also enrolled at ETH, as the only woman studying mathematics. Mileva Marić ( December 19, 1875 &ndash August 4, 1948 During the next few years, Einstein and Marić's friendship developed into romance. Einstein graduated in 1900 from ETH with a degree in physics.  That same year, Einstein's friend Michele Besso introduced him to the work of Ernst Mach. Michele Angelo Besso ( May 25 1873 Riesbach - March 15 1955 Genova) was a Swiss/Italian Engineer of Jewish Italian Ernst Mach (max ( February 18, 1838 &ndash February 19, 1916) was an Austrian Physicist and Philosopher and The next year, Einstein published a paper in the prestigious Annalen der Physik on the capillary forces of a straw (Einstein 1901). Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (since 1790 Physics journals worldwide Capillary action, capillarity, capillary motion, or wicking is the ability of a substance to draw another substance into it On February 21, 1901, he gained Swiss citizenship, which he never revoked. Events 362 - Athanasius returns to Alexandria. 1245 - Thomas, the first known Bishop of Finland Year 1901 ( MCMI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting 
Following graduation, Einstein could not find a teaching post. The Kramgasse ("Grocers Alley" is one of the principal streets in the Old City of Berne, the medieval city center of Berne, Switzerland. The city of Berne or Bern (, Berne, Berna, Romansh: Berna, Bernese German: Bärn) is the Bundesstadt ( Federal After almost two years of searching, a former classmate's father helped him get a job in Berne, at the Federal Office for Intellectual Property, the patent office, as an assistant examiner. The city of Berne or Bern (, Berne, Berna, Romansh: Berna, Bernese German: Bärn) is the Bundesstadt ( Federal The Swiss Federal Institute of Intellectual Property ( French: Institut Fédéral de la Propriété Intellectuelle, German: Eidgenössisches Institut A patent examiner or patent clerk is an Employee, usually a civil servant, working within a Patent office. His responsibility was evaluating patent applications for electromagnetic devices. A patent application is a request pending at a Patent office for the grant of a Patent for the Invention described and claimed by that application In 1903, Einstein's position at the Swiss Patent Office was made permanent, although he was passed over for promotion until he "fully mastered machine technology". 
With friends he met in Berne, Einstein formed a weekly discussion club on science and philosophy, jokingly named "The Olympia Academy". The Olympia Academy (German Akademie Olympia) was a group of friends in Bern, Switzerland, who met &ndash usually at Albert Einstein 's flat Their readings included Poincaré, Mach, and Hume, who influenced Einstein's scientific and philosophical outlook. Jules Henri Poincaré ( 29 April 1854 &ndash 17 July 1912) (ˈʒyl ɑ̃ˈʁi pwɛ̃kaˈʁe was a French Mathematician Ernst Mach (max ( February 18, 1838 &ndash February 19, 1916) was an Austrian Physicist and Philosopher and David Hume (26 April 1711 25 August 1776 Scottish Philosopher, Economist, and Historian is an important figure in Western philosophy 
During this period Einstein had almost no personal contact with the physics community.  Much of his work at the patent office related to questions about transmission of electric signals and electrical-mechanical synchronization of time: two technical problems that show up conspicuously in the thought experiments that eventually led Einstein to his radical conclusions about the nature of light and the fundamental connection between space and time. A thought experiment (from the German Gedankenexperiment) is a proposal for an Experiment that would test a Hypothesis or Theory 
Einstein and Mileva Marić had a daughter, Lieserl Einstein, born in early 1902. Mileva Marić ( December 19, 1875 &ndash August 4, 1948 Lieserl Einstein ( Serbian Cyrillic: sr Лизерл Ајнштајн (February 4 1902 – ? was the first child of physicist Albert Einstein and Mileva  Her fate is unknown.
Einstein married Mileva on January 6, 1903, although Einstein's mother had objected to the match because she had a prejudice against Serbs and thought Marić "too old" and "physically defective. Events 1066 - Harold Godwinson is crowned King of England. 1205 - Philip of Swabia becomes King Year 1903 ( MCMIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar or a Common year starting "  Their relationship was for a time a personal and intellectual partnership. In a letter to her, Einstein called Marić "a creature who is my equal and who is as strong and independent as I am. " There has been debate about whether Marić influenced Einstein's work; however, most historians do not think she made major contributions.  On May 14, 1904, Albert and Mileva's first son, Hans Albert Einstein, was born in Berne, Switzerland. Events 1264 - Battle of Lewes: Henry III of England is captured in France making Simon de Montfort the Year 1904 ( MCMIV) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year starting on Hans Albert Einstein ( May 14, 1904 &ndash July 26, 1973) was a professor of Hydraulic engineering at the University of The city of Berne or Bern (, Berne, Berna, Romansh: Berna, Bernese German: Bärn) is the Bundesstadt ( Federal Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation Their second son, Eduard, was born in Munich on July 28, 1910. Eduard Einstein ( 28 July 1910 &ndash 25 October 1965) was born in Zurich, the second son of physicist Albert Einstein Munich (München; Minga is the capital city of Bavaria, Germany. Events 1540 - Thomas Cromwell is executed at the order of Henry VIII of England on charges of Treason. Year 1910 ( MCMX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting
Einstein and Marić divorced on February 14, 1919, having lived apart for five years. Events 842 - Charles the Bald and Louis the German swear the Oaths of Strasbourg in the French and German Year 1919 ( MCMXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common On June 2 of that year, Einstein married Elsa Löwenthal, who had nursed him through an illness. Events 455 - The Vandals enter Rome, and plunder the city for two weeks Elsa Einstein ( 18 January, 1876 - 20 December, 1936) was the second wife and cousin of Albert Einstein. Elsa was Albert's first cousin maternally and his second cousin paternally. cousin in Kinship terminology is a relative with whom one shares a common Ancestor, but in modern usage the term is rarely used when referring to a Together the Einsteins raised Margot and Ilse, Elsa's daughters from her first marriage.  Their union produced no children.
In 1905, while he was working in the patent office, Einstein had four papers published in the Annalen der Physik, the leading German physics journal. The Annus Mirabilis Papers (from Latin, Annus mirabilis, for 'extraordinary year' are the papers of Albert Einstein published in the " Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (since 1790 Physics journals worldwide These are the papers that history has come to call the Annus Mirabilis Papers:
All four papers are today recognized as tremendous achievements—and hence 1905 is known as Einstein's "Wonderful Year". Annus mirabilis is a Latin phrase meaning "wonderful year" or "year of wonders" (or "year of miracles" At the time, however, they were not noticed by most physicists as being important, and many of those who did notice them rejected them outright. Some of this work—such as the theory of light quanta—remained controversial for years. 
At the age of 26, having studied under Alfred Kleiner, Professor of Experimental Physics, Einstein was awarded a PhD by the University of Zurich. Alfred Kleiner ( April 24, 1849 &ndash July 3, 1916) was Professor of Experimental Physics at the University of Alma Dohee, and was "PhD" redirects here for other uses see PhD (disambiguation. The University of Zurich ( German: Universität Zürich) located in the city of Zurich, is the largest University in Switzerland His dissertation was entitled A New Determination of Molecular Dimensions. (Einstein 1905b)
In 1906, the patent office promoted Einstein to Technical Examiner Second Class, but he had not given up on academia. In 1908, he became a privatdozent at the University of Bern. Private docent (abbreviates PD or Priv-Doz) is a title conferred in some European university systems especially in German -speaking countries The University of Berne is a University in the Swiss capital of Berne.  In 1910, he wrote a paper on critical opalescence that described the cumulative effect of light scattered by individual molecules in the atmosphere, i. Critical opalescence is a phenomenon which arises in the region of a continuous or second-order Phase transition. e. why the sky is blue. Diffuse sky radiation is Solar radiation reaching the Earth 's surface after having been scattered from the direct solar beam by Molecules 
During 1909, Einstein published "Über die Entwicklung unserer Anschauungen über das Wesen und die Konstitution der Strahlung" ("The Development of Our Views on the Composition and Essence of Radiation"), on the quantization of light. In Physics, quantization is a procedure for constructing a Quantum field theory starting from a classical field theory. In this and in an earlier 1909 paper, Einstein showed that Max Planck's energy quanta must have well-defined momenta and act in some respects as independent, point-like particles. In Physics and other Sciences energy (from the Greek grc ἐνέργεια - Energeia, "activity operation" from grc ἐνεργός In Classical mechanics, momentum ( pl momenta SI unit kg · m/s, or equivalently N · s) is the product A point particle (or point-like, often spelled pointlike) is an idealized object heavily used in Physics. This paper introduced the photon concept (although the term itself was introduced by Gilbert N. Lewis in 1926) and inspired the notion of wave–particle duality in quantum mechanics. In Physics, the photon is the Elementary particle responsible for electromagnetic phenomena Gilbert Newton Lewis ( October 23, 1875 - March 23, 1946) was a famous American physical chemist known for the discovery In Physics and Chemistry, wave–particle duality is the concept that all Matter and Energy exhibits both Wave -like and Quantum mechanics is the study of mechanical systems whose dimensions are close to the Atomic scale such as Molecules Atoms Electrons
In 1911, Einstein became an associate professor at the University of Zurich. The meaning of the word professor ( Latin: professor, person who professes to be an expert in some art or science teacher of highest rank) varies The University of Zurich ( German: Universität Zürich) located in the city of Zurich, is the largest University in Switzerland However, shortly afterward, he accepted a full professorship at the Charles University of Prague. Charles University in Prague (also simply Charles University; Univerzita Karlova v Praze Universitas Carolina Karls-Universität zu Prag is the oldest and largest While in Prague, Einstein published a paper about the effects of gravity on light, specifically the gravitational redshift and the gravitational deflection of light. Prague (ˈprɑːg Praha (ˈpraɦa see also other names) is the Capital and Largest city of the Czech Republic. In Physics, Light or other forms of Electromagnetic radiation of a certain wavelength originating from a source placed in a region of stronger gravitational The paper appealed to astronomers to find ways of detecting the deflection during a solar eclipse. A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between the Sun and the Earth so that the Sun is wholly or partially obscured  German astronomer Erwin Finlay-Freundlich publicized Einstein's challenge to scientists around the world. Erwin Finlay-Freundlich ( May 29, 1885 - July 24, 1964) name"'''Finlay'''" was a German Astronomer, a pupil 
In 1912, Einstein returned to Switzerland to accept a professorship at his alma mater, the ETH. Alma mater is Latin for "nourishing mother" It was used in Ancient Rome as a title for the mother Goddess, and in Medieval There he met mathematician Marcel Grossmann who introduced him to Riemannian geometry, and at the recommendation of Italian mathematician Tullio Levi-Civita, Einstein began exploring the usefulness of general covariance (essentially the use of tensors) for his gravitational theory. Marcel Grossmann (born in Budapest on April 9, 1878 - died in Zurich on September 7, 1936) was a Mathematician Elliptic geometry is also sometimes called Riemannian geometry. Tullio Levi-Civita ( March 29, 1873 — December 29, 1941) (pronounced /'levi ˈʧivita/ was an Italian Mathematician, In Theoretical physics, general covariance (also known as Diffeomorphism covariance or general invariance) is the Invariance of the History The word tensor was introduced in 1846 by William Rowan Hamilton to describe the norm operation in a certain type of algebraic system (eventually Although for a while Einstein thought that there were problems with that approach, he later returned to it and by late 1915 had published his general theory of relativity in the form that is still used today (Einstein 1915). General relativity or the general theory of relativity is the geometric theory of Gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1916 This theory explains gravitation as distortion of the structure of spacetime by matter, affecting the inertial motion of other matter. SpaceTime is a patent-pending three dimensional graphical user interface that allows end users to search their content such as Google Google Images Yahoo! YouTube eBay Amazon and RSS The vis insita or innate force of matter is a power of resisting by which every body as much as in it lies endeavors to preserve in its present state whether it be of rest or of moving
After many relocations, Mileva established a permanent home with the children in Zurich in 1914, just before the start of World War I. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Einstein continued on alone to Berlin, where he became a member of the Prussian Academy of Sciences. Berlin is the capital city and one of sixteen states of Germany. The Prussian Academy of Sciences (Preußische Akademie der Wissenschaften was an Academy established in Berlin on July 11 1700. As part of the arrangements for his new position, he also became a professor at the Humboldt University of Berlin, although with a special clause freeing him from most teaching obligations. For other universities in Berlin see List of Universities in Berlin. From 1914 to 1932 he was also director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics. The Kaiser Wilhelm Gesellschaft is a German entity formally known as the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften e 
During World War I, the speeches and writings of Central Powers scientists were available only to Central Powers academics, for national security reasons. The Central Powers ( German: "Mittelmächte" Hungarian: "Központi hatalmak" Turkish: "İttifak National security is the entire scope of measures undertaken by the Governments of Nation-states in providing assurance of national Sovereignty Some of Einstein's work did reach the United Kingdom and the United States through the efforts of the Austrian Paul Ehrenfest and physicists in the Netherlands, especially 1902 Nobel Prize-winner Hendrik Lorentz and Willem de Sitter of the Leiden University. Paul Ehrenfest ( January 18, 1880 – September 25, 1933) was an Austrian Physicist and Mathematician, who Hendrik Antoon Lorentz ( July 18, 1853 &ndash February 4, 1928) was a Dutch Physicist who shared the 1902 Nobel Willem de Sitter ( May 6 1872 &ndash November 20 1934) was a Dutch mathematician physicist and astronomer Leiden University (Universiteit Leiden located in the city of Leiden, is the oldest University in The Netherlands. After the war ended, Einstein maintained his relationship with the Leiden University, accepting a contract as an Extraordinary Professor; he travelled to Holland regularly to lecture there between 1920 and 1930. The meaning of the word professor ( Latin: professor, person who professes to be an expert in some art or science teacher of highest rank) varies 
In 1917, Einstein published an article in Physikalische Zeitschrift that proposed the possibility of stimulated emission, the physical process that makes possible the maser and the laser (Einstein 1917b). In Optics, stimulated emission is the process by which an electron perturbed by a Photon having the correct energy may drop to a lower Energy level resulting A maser is a device that produces coherent Electromagnetic waves through amplification due to Stimulated emission. A laser is a device that emits Light ( Electromagnetic radiation) through a process called Stimulated emission. He also published a paper introducing a new notion, the cosmological constant, into the general theory of relativity in an attempt to model the behavior of the entire universe (Einstein 1917a). In Physical cosmology, the cosmological constant (usually denoted by the Greek capital letter Lambda: Λ was proposed by Albert Einstein as a modification
1917 was the year astronomers began taking Einstein up on his 1911 challenge from Prague. The Mount Wilson Observatory in California, U. The Mount Wilson Observatory (MWO is an Astronomical observatory in Los Angeles County California. S. , published a solar spectroscopic analysis that showed no gravitational redshift. Spectroscopy was originally the study of the interaction between Radiation and Matter as a function of Wavelength (λ  In 1918, the Lick Observatory, also in California, announced that they too had disproven Einstein's prediction, although their findings were not published. The Lick Observatory is an astronomical Observatory, owned and operated by the University of California. 
However, in May 1919, a team led by British astronomer Arthur Stanley Eddington claimed to have confirmed Einstein's prediction of gravitational deflection of starlight by the Sun while photographing a solar eclipse in Sobral, northern Brazil, and Príncipe. Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington, OM (28 December 1882 – 22 November 1944 was an English Astrophysicist of the early 20th century A gravitational lens is formed when the light from a very distant bright source (such as a Quasar) is "bent" around a massive object (such as a cluster of Sobral is a city and municipality in the state of Ceará, Brazil. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld Príncipe is the smaller of the two major islands of São Tomé and Príncipe lying off the west coast of Africa  On November 7, 1919, leading British newspaper The Times printed a banner headline that read: "Revolution in Science – New Theory of the Universe – Newtonian Ideas Overthrown". Events 1492 - The Ensisheim Meteorite the oldest Meteorite with a known date of impact strikes the Earth around noon in a Wheat Year 1919 ( MCMXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The Times is a daily national Newspaper published in the United Kingdom since 1785 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register.  In an interview Nobel laureate Max Born praised general relativity as the "greatest feat of human thinking about nature"; fellow laureate Paul Dirac was quoted saying it was "probably the greatest scientific discovery ever made". Max Born (11 December 1882 &ndash 5 January 1970 was a German Physicist and Mathematician who was instrumental in the development of Quantum 
In their excitement, the world media made Albert Einstein world-famous. Ironically, later examination of the photographs taken on the Eddington expedition showed that the experimental uncertainty was of about the same magnitude as the effect Eddington claimed to have demonstrated, and in 1962 a British expedition concluded that the method used was inherently unreliable.  The deflection of light during a solar eclipse has, however, been more accurately measured (and confirmed) by later observations. 
There was some resentment toward the newcomer Einstein's fame in the scientific community, notably among German physicists, who later started the Deutsche Physik (German Physics) movement. Deutsche Physik (literally "German Physics" or Aryan Physics was a Nationalist movement in the German Physics community 
In 1921 Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics, "for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect". The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik is awarded once a year by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. This refers to his 1905 paper on the photoelectric effect: "On a Heuristic Viewpoint Concerning the Production and Transformation of Light", which was well supported by the experimental evidence by that time. The presentation speech began by mentioning "his theory of relativity [which had] been the subject of lively debate in philosophical circles [and] also has astrophysical implications which are being rigorously examined at the present time. " (Einstein 1923) As stipulated in their 1919 divorce settlement, Einstein gave the Nobel prize money to his first wife, Mileva Marić. Mileva Marić ( December 19, 1875 &ndash August 4, 1948
Einstein traveled to New York City in the United States for the first time on April 2, 1921. The City of New York Events 68 - Galba, Governor of Hispania, names himself legatus senatus populique Romani, breaking the line of Year 1921 ( MCMXXI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1921 calendar of the Gregorian calendar When asked where he got his scientific ideas, Einstein explained that he believed scientific work best proceeds from an examination of physical reality and a search for underlying axioms, with consistent explanations that apply in all instances and avoid contradicting each other. He also recommended theories with visualizable results (Einstein 1954). 
Einstein's research after general relativity consisted primarily of a long series of attempts to generalize his theory of gravitation in order to unify and simplify the fundamental laws of physics, particularly gravitation and electromagnetism. The History of special relativity consists of many theoretical and empirical results of physicists like Hendrik Lorentz and Henri Poincaré, which culminated in the Since the 1800s some physicists have attempted to develop a single theoretical framework that can account for the Fundamental forces of nature – a Unified field theory. The Max Planck medal is an award for extraordinary achievements in Theoretical physics. Events 1098 - Fighters of the First Crusade defeat Kerbogha of Mosul. Year 1929 ( MCMXXIX) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. A physical law or scientific law is a Scientific generalization based on empirical Observations of physical behavior (i In 1950, he described this "unified field theory" in a Scientific American article entitled "On the Generalized Theory of Gravitation" (Einstein 1950). In Physics, a unified field theory is a type of Field theory that allows all of the Fundamental forces between Elementary particles to be written Scientific American is a Popular science magazine, published (first weekly and later monthly since August 28, 1845, making it
Although he continued to be lauded for his work in theoretical physics, Einstein became increasingly isolated in his research, and his attempts were ultimately unsuccessful. In his pursuit of a unification of the fundamental forces, he ignored some mainstream developments in physics (and vice versa), most notably the strong and weak nuclear forces, which were not well understood until many years after Einstein's death. In particle physics the strong interaction, or strong force, or color force, holds Quarks and Gluons together to form Protons and The weak interaction (often called the weak force or sometimes the weak nuclear force) is one of the four Fundamental interactions of nature Einstein's goal of unifying the laws of physics under a single model survives in the current drive for the grand unification theory. Grand Unification, grand unified theory, or GUT refers to any of several very similar unified field theories or models in Physics that 
In 1924, Einstein received a description of a statistical model from Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose which showed that light could be understood as a gas. Statistical mechanics is the application of Probability theory, which includes mathematical tools for dealing with large populations to the field of Mechanics India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Satyendra Nath Bose (/sɐθjinðrɐ nɑθ bos/ সত্যেন্দ্র নাথ বসু ( January 1, 1894 &ndash February 4, 1974 Bose's statistics applied to some atoms as well as to the proposed light particles, and Einstein submitted his translation of Bose's paper to the Zeitschrift für Physik. The Zeitschrift für Physik (Journal of Physics was a German Academic journal published from 1920 until 1997 Einstein also published his own articles describing the model and its implications, among them the Bose–Einstein condensate phenomenon that should appear at very low temperatures (Einstein 1924). A Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC is a State of matter of Bosons confined in an external Potential and cooled to Temperatures very near to It was not until 1995 that the first such condensate was produced experimentally by Eric Allin Cornell and Carl Wieman using ultra-cooling equipment built at the NIST-JILA laboratory at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Eric Allin Cornell (born December 19, 1961) is a physicist who along with Carl E Carl Edwin Wieman (born March 26 1951) is an American Physicist at the University of British Columbia and Nobel Prize in Ultracold atoms is a term used to describe atoms that are maintained at temperatures close to 0 Kelvin ( Absolute zero) typically below some tenths of μK JILA, formerly known as the Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics, is one of the leading physical-science research institutes in the United States. The University of Colorado at Boulder ( CU-Boulder, UCB officially Colorado and CU colloquially is the Flagship University  Bose–Einstein statistics are now used to describe the behaviors of any assembly of "bosons". In Statistical mechanics, Bose - Einstein statistics (or more colloquially B-E statistics determines the statistical distribution of In Particle physics, bosons are particles which obey Bose-Einstein statistics; they are named after Satyendra Nath Bose and Albert Einstein Einstein's sketches for this project may be seen in the Einstein Archive in the library of the Leiden University. Leiden University (Universiteit Leiden located in the city of Leiden, is the oldest University in The Netherlands. 
Einstein suggested to Erwin Schrödinger an application of Max Planck's idea of treating energy levels for a gas as a whole rather than for individual molecules, and Schrödinger applied this in a paper using the Boltzmann distribution to derive the thermodynamic properties of a semiclassical ideal gas. A quantum mechanical system or particle that is bound, confined spacially can only take on certain discrete values of energy as opposed to classical particles which This page is about the physical properties of gas as a state of matter In Chemistry, a molecule is defined as a sufficiently stable electrically neutral group of at least two Atoms in a definite arrangement held together by WikipediaWikiProject Probability#Standards for a discussion of standards used for probability distribution articles such as this one In Physics, thermodynamics (from the Greek θερμη therme meaning " Heat " and δυναμις dynamis meaning " In Physics, the adjective semiclassical has different precise meanings depending on the context These four properties that constitute an ideal gas can be easily remembered by the acronym RIPE which stands for - R andom Motion (molecules are in constant random motion Schrödinger urged Einstein to add his name as co-author, although Einstein declined the invitation. 
In 1926, Einstein and his former student Leó Szilárd, a Hungarian physicist who later worked on the Manhattan Project and is credited with the discovery of the chain reaction, co-invented (and in 1930, patented) the Einstein refrigerator, revolutionary for having no moving parts and using only heat, not ice, as an input. Leó Szilárd (Szilárd Leó February 11, 1898 – May 30, 1964) was an Hungarian - American Physicist who The World War II Manhattan Project developed the first Nuclear weapon (atomic bomb A chain reaction is a sequence of Reactions where a reactive product or by-product causes additional reactions to take place The Einstein refrigerator is an Absorption refrigerator which has no moving parts and requires only a heat source to operate 
In the 1920s, quantum mechanics developed into a more complete theory. Quantum mechanics is the study of mechanical systems whose dimensions are close to the Atomic scale such as Molecules Atoms Electrons Einstein was unhappy with the "Copenhagen interpretation" of quantum theory developed by Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg, wherein quantum phenomena are inherently probabilistic, with definite states resulting only upon interaction with classical systems. The Copenhagen interpretation is an interpretation of Quantum mechanics. Niels Henrik David Bohr (nels ˈb̥oɐ̯ˀ in Danish 7 October 1885 – 18 November 1962 was a Danish Physicist who made fundamental contributions to understanding Werner Heisenberg (5 December 1901 in Würzburg &ndash1 February 1976 in Munich) was a German theoretical physicist best known for enunciating the A public debate between Einstein and Bohr followed, lasting for many years (including during the Solvay Conferences). The International Solvay Institutes for Physics and Chemistry, located in Brussels, were founded by the Belgian industrialist Ernest Solvay Einstein formulated thought experiments against the Copenhagen interpretation, which were all rebutted by Bohr. A thought experiment (from the German Gedankenexperiment) is a proposal for an Experiment that would test a Hypothesis or Theory In a 1926 letter to Max Born, Einstein wrote: "I, at any rate, am convinced that He [God] does not throw dice. Max Born (11 December 1882 &ndash 5 January 1970 was a German Physicist and Mathematician who was instrumental in the development of Quantum " (Einstein 1969). 
Einstein was never satisfied by what he perceived to be quantum theory's intrinsically incomplete description of nature, and in 1935 he further explored the issue in collaboration with Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen, noting that the theory seems to require non-local interactions; this is known as the EPR paradox (Einstein 1935). Boris Podolsky ( Борис Подольский) born into a Jewish family in 1896 Taganrog, Russia - died 1966 U Prof Nathan Rosen (Hebrew נתן רוזן Born into a Jewish family ( March 22, 1909, Brooklyn, New York &ndash December 18, 1995 In Physics, nonlocality is a direct influence of one object on another distant object in violation of Principle of locality. In Quantum mechanics, the EPR paradox is a Thought experiment which challenged long-held ideas about the relation between the observed values of physical quantities The EPR experiment has since been performed, with results confirming quantum theory's predictions. 
Einstein's disagreement with Bohr revolved around the idea of scientific determinism. Determinism is the philosophical Proposition that every event including human cognition and behaviour decision and action is causally determined For this reason the repercussions of the Einstein-Bohr debate have found their way into philosophical discourse as well.
The question of scientific determinism gave rise to questions about Einstein's position on theological determinism, and whether or not he believed in a God. Theological determinism is the religious view that all events in the world were pre-ordained by God. In 1929, Einstein told Rabbi Herbert S. Goldstein "I believe in Spinoza's God, who reveals Himself in the lawful harmony of the world, not in a God Who concerns Himself with the fate and the doings of mankind. Rabbi Dr Herbert S Goldstein, (b New York February 8, 1890 -January 1970 was a prominent Jewish leader in the United States. Baruch or Benedict de Spinoza (ברוך שפינוזה Bento de Espinosa Benedictus de Spinoza ( November 24, 1632 – February 21, " In a 1950 letter to M. Berkowitz, Einstein stated that "My position concerning God is that of an agnostic. I am convinced that a vivid consciousness of the primary importance of moral principles for the betterment and ennoblement of life does not need the idea of a law-giver, especially a law-giver who works on the basis of reward and punishment. " Einstein also stated: "I have repeatedly said that in my opinion the idea of a personal God is a childlike one. You may call me an agnostic, but I do not share the crusading spirit of the professional atheist whose fervor is mostly due to a painful act of liberation from the fetters of religious indoctrination received in youth. Agnosticism ( Greek: α- a-, without + γνώσις gnōsis, knowledge after Gnosticism) is the philosophical view that the " He is reported to have said in a conversation with Hubertus, Prince of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Freudenberg "In view of such harmony in the cosmos which I, with my limited human mind, am able to recognize, there are yet people who say there is no God. Prince Hubertus zu Loewenstein-Wertheim-Freudenberg ( October 14, 1906 &ndash November 28, 1984) was a German historian and political figure But what really makes me angry is that they quote me for the support of such views. " Einstein clarified his religious views in a letter he wrote in response to those who claimed that he worshipped a Judeo-Christian god: "It was, of course, a lie what you read about my religious convictions, a lie which is being systematically repeated. I do not believe in a personal god and I have never denied this but have expressed it clearly. The expression Personal God, refers to the belief that God is - and can be related to as - a Person. If something is in me which can be called religious then it is the unbounded admiration for the structure of the world so far as our science can reveal it. " In his book The World as I See It, he wrote: "A knowledge of the existence of something we cannot penetrate, of the manifestations of the profoundest reason and the most radiant beauty, which are only accessible to our reason in their most elementary forms—it is this knowledge and this emotion that constitute the truly religious attitude; in this sense, and in this alone, I am a deeply religious man. "
Einstein published a paper in Nature in 1940 entitled "Science and Religion" which gave his views on the subject. Nature is a prominent Scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869  He says that: "a person who is religiously enlightened appears to me to be one who has, to the best of his ability, liberated himself from the fetters of his selfish desires and is preoccupied with thoughts, feelings and aspirations to which he clings because of their super-personal value … regardless of whether any attempt is made to unite this content with a Divine Being, for otherwise it would not be possible to count Buddha and Spinoza as religious personalities. Siddhārtha Gautama ( Sanskrit; Pali: Siddhattha Gotama) was a spiritual Teacher from Ancient India and the founder Baruch or Benedict de Spinoza (ברוך שפינוזה Bento de Espinosa Benedictus de Spinoza ( November 24, 1632 – February 21, Accordingly a religious person is devout in the sense that he has no doubt of the significance of those super-personal objects and goals which neither require nor are capable of rational foundation … In this sense religion is the age-old endeavour of mankind to become clearly and completely conscious of these values and goals, and constantly to strengthen their effects. " He argued that conflicts between science and religion "have all sprung from fatal errors. " "[E]ven though the realms of religion and science in themselves are clearly marked off from each other" there are "strong reciprocal relationships and dependencies … science without religion is lame, religion without science is blind … a legitimate conflict between science and religion cannot exist. " In Einstein's view, "neither the rule of human nor Divine Will exists as an independent cause of natural events. To be sure, the doctrine of a personal God interfering with natural events could never be refuted … by science, for [it] can always take refuge in those domains in which scientific knowledge has not yet been able to set foot. " (Einstein 1940, pp. 605–607)
In a letter to Eric Gutkind in 1954 Einstein said: "The word God is for me nothing more than the expression and product of human weaknesses, the Bible a collection of honorable, but still primitive legends which are nevertheless pretty childish. "
His friend Max Jammer explored Einstein's views on religion thoroughly in the 1999 book Einstein and Religion: Physics and Theology. Max Jammer (born 1915 is an Israeli physicist and philosopher of physics. Einstein and Religion Physics and Theology (1999 is a book on the religious views of Nobel prize -winning Physicist Albert 
With increasing public demands, his involvement in political, humanitarian, and academic projects in various countries, and his new acquaintances with scholars and political figures from around the world, Einstein was less able to achieve the productive isolation that he needed in order to work. This is a list of Nobel Prize Laureates awarded for their outstanding contributions to Humanitarian causes for Peace, work in Literature Events 1223 - Louis VIII becomes King of France upon the death of his father Philip II of France. Year 1930 ( MCMXXX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar of the Gregorian calendar.  Due to his fame and genius, Einstein found himself called on to give conclusive judgments on matters that had nothing to do with theoretical physics or mathematics. He was not timid, and he was aware of the world around him, with no illusion that ignoring politics would make world events fade away. His very visible position allowed him to speak and write frankly, even provocatively, at a time when many people of conscience could only flee to the underground or keep doubts about developments within their own movements to themselves for fear of internecine fighting. Resistance during World War II occurred in every occupied country by a variety of means ranging from non-cooperation disinformation and propaganda to hiding crashed pilots Einstein flouted the ascendant Nazi movement, tried to be a voice of moderation in the tumultuous formation of the State of Israel and braved anti-communist politics and resistance to the civil rights movement in the United States. Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. He participated in the 1927 congress of the League against Imperialism in Brussels. The League against Imperialism ( French: " Ligue contre l'impérialisme et l'oppression coloniale " was founded in the Egmont Palace in Brussels Brussels (Bruxelles pronounced; Brussel pronounced) officially the Brussels Capital-Region, is 
Einstein was a cultural Zionist. Cultural Zionism ( ציונות רוחנית) is a strain of the concept of Zionism that values Jewish culture and history including language and historical In 1931, The Macmillan Company published About Zionism: Speeches and Lectures by Professor Albert Einstein.  Querido, an Amsterdam publishing house, collected eleven of Einstein's essays into a 1933 book entitled Mein Weltbild, translated to English as The World as I See It; Einstein's foreword dedicates the collection "to the Jews of Germany". Emanuel Querido ( August 6 1871, Amsterdam - July 23 1943, Sobibor) was a successful Dutch publisher as the founder Amsterdam (pronounced) is the capital and largest city of the Netherlands, located in the province of North Holland in the west  In the face of Germany's rising militarism, Einstein wrote and spoke for peace. 
Despite his years of Zionist efforts, Einstein publicly stated reservations about the proposal to partition the British-supervised British Mandate of Palestine into independent Arab and Jewish countries. The Palestine Mandate, was a set of protocols or articles that formed a multilateral legal and administrative agreement In a 1938 speech, "Our Debt to Zionism", he said: "I am afraid of the inner damage Judaism will sustain—especially from the development of a narrow nationalism within our own ranks, against which we have already had to fight strongly, even without a Jewish state. . . . If external necessity should after all compel us to assume this burden [of a state], let us bear it with tact and patience. "
The United Nations did divide the mandate, demarcating the borders of several new countries including the State of Israel, and war broke out immediately. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. Einstein was one of the authors of a 1948 letter to the New York Times criticizing Menachem Begin's Revisionist Herut (Freedom) Party for the Deir Yassin massacre (Einstein et al. 1948). (מְנַחֵם בְּגִין Mieczysław Biegun Менахем Вольфович Бегин 16 August 1913 – 9 March 1992 was the sixth prime minister of the State of Israel Revisionist Zionism is a nationalist faction within the Zionist movement This article is about the political party For other uses see Herut (disambiguation. The Deir Yassin massacre was the killing of between 107 and 120 villagers the estimate generally accepted by scholars during and possibly after the battle at the village of
Einstein served on the Board of Governors of The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (האוניברסיטה העברית בירושלים الجامعة العبرية في القدس abbreviated HUJI) is In his Will of 1950, Einstein bequeathed literary rights to his writings to The Hebrew University, where many of his original documents are held in the Albert Einstein Archives. 
When President Chaim Weizmann died in 1952, Einstein was asked to be Israel's second president, but he declined. Chaim Azriel Weizmann ( Hebrew: חיים עזריאל ויצמן – November 27, 1874 &ndash November 9, 1952) was a Zionist He wrote: "I am deeply moved by the offer from our State of Israel, and at once saddened and ashamed that I cannot accept it. "
In a 1954 letter, Einstein rejected the idea that the Jews are God's chosen people. He wrote: "For me the Jewish religion like all others is an incarnation of the most childish superstitions. And the Jewish people to whom I gladly belong and with whose mentality I have a deep affinity have no different quality for me than all other people. As far as my experience goes, they are no better than other human groups, although they are protected from the worst cancers by a lack of power. Otherwise I cannot see anything 'chosen' about them. "
In January 1933, Adolf Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany. Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately The Head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (Kanzler One of the first actions of Hitler's administration was the Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service which removed Jews and politically suspect government employees (including university professors) from their jobs, unless they had demonstrated their loyalty to Germany by serving in World War I. The Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service (in German: Gesetz zur Wiederherstellung des Berufsbeamtentums or short Berufsbeamtengesetz In December 1932, in response to this growing threat, Einstein had prudently traveled to the U. S. For several years he had been wintering at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, California, and also was a guest lecturer at Abraham Flexner's newly founded Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. The California Institute of Technology (commonly referred to as Caltech) is a private, Coeducational research university located in Pasadena Pasadena ( is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States. Abraham Flexner ( November 13 1866, Louisville Kentucky - September 21 1959) was an American educator The Institute for Advanced Study, located in Princeton New Jersey, United States is a center for theoretical research See also Princeton Township New Jersey, Borough of Princeton New Jersey Princeton Borough New Jersey Princeton Township New Jersey this 
The Einsteins bought a house in Princeton (where Elsa died in 1936), and Einstein remained an integral contributor to the Institute for Advanced Study until his death in 1955. During the 1930s and into World War II, Einstein wrote affidavits recommending United States visas for a huge number of Jews from Europe trying to flee persecution, raised money for Zionist organizations and was in part responsible for the formation, in 1933, of the International Rescue Committee. An affidavit is a formal sworn statement of fact, signed by the declarant (who is called the affiant or deponent) and witnessed (as to the veracity of the A visa (short for the Latin carta visa, lit "a document that has been seen" is a document issued by a Country giving an individual The International Rescue Committee (IRC is a leading non-sectarian non-governmental international relief and Humanitarian aid organization based in the United 
Meanwhile in Germany, a campaign to eliminate Einstein's work from the German lexicon as unacceptable "Jewish physics" (Jüdische physik) was led by Nobel laureates Philipp Lenard and Johannes Stark. Deutsche Physik (literally "German Physics" or Aryan Physics was a Nationalist movement in the German Physics community Philipp Eduard Anton von Lénárd ( June 7, 1862 &ndash May 20, 1947) was a German physicist and the winner of the Johannes Stark ( April 15, 1874 &ndash June 21, 1957) was a prominent 20th century German physicist, and Physics Deutsche Physik activists published pamphlets and even textbooks denigrating Einstein, and instructors who taught his theories were blacklisted—including Nobel laureate Werner Heisenberg, who had debated quantum probability with Bohr and Einstein. Deutsche Physik (literally "German Physics" or Aryan Physics was a Nationalist movement in the German Physics community Werner Heisenberg (5 December 1901 in Würzburg &ndash1 February 1976 in Munich) was a German theoretical physicist best known for enunciating the Philipp Lenard claimed that the mass–energy equivalence formula needed to be credited to Friedrich Hasenöhrl to make it an Aryan creation. In Physics, mass–energy equivalence is the concept that for particles slower than light any Mass has an associated Energy and vice versa. Friedrich Hasenöhrl ( November 30, 1874 - October 7, 1915) was an Austro-Hungarian physicist The " Aryan race " is a concept in European culture that was influential in the period of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries 
Einstein became a citizen of the United States in 1940 and remained there the rest of his life, although he retained his Swiss citizenship. 
Concerned scientists, many of them refugees from European anti-Semitism in the U. The World War II Manhattan Project developed the first Nuclear weapon (atomic bomb S. , recognized the danger of German scientists developing an atomic bomb based on the newly-discovered phenomena of nuclear fission. A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from Nuclear reactions either fission or a combination of fission and fusion. Nuclear fission is the splitting of the nucleus of an atom into parts (lighter nuclei) often producing Free neutrons and other smaller nuclei which may In 1939, the Hungarian émigré Leó Szilárd, having failed to arouse U. Leó Szilárd (Szilárd Leó February 11, 1898 – May 30, 1964) was an Hungarian - American Physicist who S. government interest on his own, worked with Einstein to write a letter to U. S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, which Einstein signed, urging U. S. development of such a weapon.  In August 1939, Roosevelt received the Einstein-Szilárd letter and authorized secret research into the harnessing of nuclear fission for military purposes. The Einstein-Szilárd letter was a letter sent to President Franklin Delano Roosevelt on August 2 1939 signed by Albert Einstein but largely written by Leó 
By 1942 this effort had become the Manhattan Project, the largest secret scientific endeavor undertaken up to that time. The World War II Manhattan Project developed the first Nuclear weapon (atomic bomb By late 1945, the U. S. had developed operational nuclear weapons, and used them on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The Japanese city of ( is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the Chūgoku region of western Honshū, the largest of Japan 's ( is the Capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. Einstein himself did not play a role in the development of the atomic bomb other than signing the letter. He did help the United States Navy with some unrelated theoretical questions it was working on during the war. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including 
According to Linus Pauling, Einstein later expressed regret about his letter to Roosevelt. Linus Carl Pauling (February 28 1901 – August 19 1994 was an American Scientist, Peace activist, Author and educator.  In 1947, Einstein wrote an article for The Atlantic Monthly arguing that the United States should not try to pursue an atomic monopoly, and instead should equip the United Nations with nuclear weapons for the sole purpose of maintaining deterrence. The Atlantic (formerly known as The Atlantic Monthly) is an American Magazine founded in Boston in 1857 The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security 
When he was a visible figure working against the rise of Nazism, Einstein had sought help and developed working relationships in both the West and what was to become the Soviet bloc. During the Cold War, the term Communist Bloc (or Soviet Bloc) was used to refer to the Soviet Union and countries it either controlled or that were After World War II, enmity between the former allies became a very serious issue for people with international résumés. To make things worse, during the first days of McCarthyism Einstein was writing about a single world government; it was at this time that he wrote, "I do not know how the third World War will be fought, but I can tell you what they will use in the Fourth—rocks!" In a 1949 Monthly Review article entitled "Why Socialism?" Albert Einstein described a chaotic capitalist society, a source of evil to be overcome, as the "predatory phase of human development" (Einstein 1949). McCarthyism is a term describing the intense anti-communist suspicion in the United States in a period that lasted roughly from the late 1940s to the late 1950s World government is the concept of a political body that would make interpret and enforce International law. Monthly Review is an independent Marxist journal published in New York City. Capitalism is the Economic system in which the Means of production are owned by private Persons and operated for Profit and where With Albert Schweitzer and Bertrand Russell, Einstein lobbied to stop nuclear testing and future bombs. Albert Schweitzer, MD, OM, (January 14 1875 &ndash September 4 1965 was an Alsatian theologian, Musician, Philosopher Bertrand Arthur William Russell 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970 was a British Philosopher, Historian Days before his death, Einstein signed the Russell-Einstein Manifesto, which led to the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs. The Russell-Einstein Manifesto was issued in London on July 9, 1955 by Bertrand Russell in the midst of the Cold War. The Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs is an International organization that brings together scholars and public figures to work toward reducing the danger 
Einstein was a member of several civil rights groups, including the Princeton chapter of the NAACP. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, usually abbreviated as NAACP, is one of the oldest and most influential Civil rights organizations When the aged W. E. B. Du Bois was accused of being a Communist spy, Einstein volunteered as a character witness, and the case was dismissed shortly afterward. William Edward Burghardt Du Bois (duːˈbɔɪz ( February 23, 1868 August 27, 1963) was an American Civil rights activist Einstein's friendship with activist Paul Robeson, with whom he served as co-chair of the American Crusade to End Lynching, lasted twenty years. Paul LeRoy Bustill Robeson ( April 9, 1898 &ndash January 23, 1976) was a multi-lingual American Actor, athlete The American Crusade Against Lynching was an organization created in 1946 and headed by Paul Robeson, dedicated to eliminating Lynching in the United States. 
In 1946, Einstein collaborated with Rabbi Israel Goldstein, Middlesex University heir C. Middlesex University known primarily for its medical and Veterinary schools operated from 1914 until 1947 first in Cambridge Massachusetts, later Ruggles Smith, and activist attorney George Alpert on the Albert Einstein Foundation for Higher Learning, Inc. , which was formed to create a Jewish-sponsored secular university, open to all students, on the grounds of the former Middlesex University in Waltham, Massachusetts. One of the early centers of the Industrial Revolution in northern America Waltham is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States Middlesex was chosen in part because it was accessible from both Boston and New York City, Jewish cultural centers of the U. S. Their vision was a university "deeply conscious both of the Hebraic tradition of Torah looking upon culture as a birthright, and of the American ideal of an educated democracy. " The collaboration was stormy, however. Finally, when Einstein wanted to appoint British economist Harold Laski as the university's president, Alpert wrote that Laski was "a man utterly alien to American principles of democracy, tarred with the Communist brush. Harold Joseph Laski ( June 30, 1893 &ndash March 24, 1950) was an English Political theorist, Economist, Author " Einstein withdrew his support and barred the use of his name.  The university opened in 1948 as Brandeis University. Brandeis University is a private research University with a Liberal arts focus located in Waltham Massachusetts, United States. In 1953, Brandeis offered Einstein an honorary degree, but he declined. 
Given Einstein's links to Germany and Zionism, his socialistic ideals, and his links to Communist figures, the U. S. Federal Bureau of Investigation kept a file on Einstein that grew to 1,427 pages. Many of the documents in the file were sent to the FBI by concerned citizens: some objecting to his immigration, while others asked the FBI to protect him. 
Although Einstein had long been sympathetic to the notion of vegetarianism, it was only near the start of 1954 that he adopted a strict vegetarian diet. Vegetarianism is the practice of a diet that excludes Meat (including game and slaughter by-products Fish (including Shellfish and other sea 
On April 17, 1955, Albert Einstein experienced internal bleeding caused by the rupture of an aortic aneurysm, which had previously been diagnosed and reinforced. Events 69 - After the First Battle of Bedriacum, Vitellius becomes Roman Emperor. Year 1955 ( MCMLV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar)  He took a draft of a speech he was preparing for a television appearance commemorating the State of Israel's seventh anniversary with him to the hospital, but he did not live long enough to complete it.  He died in Princeton Hospital early the next morning at the age of 76, having continued to work until near the end. Einstein's remains were cremated and his ashes were scattered. 
Before the cremation, Princeton Hospital pathologist Thomas Stoltz Harvey removed Einstein's brain for preservation, without the permission of his family, in hope that the neuroscience of the future would be able to discover what made Einstein so intelligent. Thomas Stoltz Harvey ( October 10 1912 &ndash April 5 2007) was a Pathologist who conducted the Autopsy on Albert Albert Einstein 's Brain has often been a subject of research and speculation 
While travelling, Einstein had written daily to his wife Elsa and adopted stepdaughters, Margot and Ilse, and the letters were included in the papers bequeathed to The Hebrew University. The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (האוניברסיטה העברית בירושלים الجامعة العبرية في القدس abbreviated HUJI) is Margot Einstein permitted the personal letters to be made available to the public, but requested that it not be done until twenty years after her death (she died in 1986). Barbara Wolff, of The Hebrew University's Albert Einstein Archives, told the BBC that there are about 3,500 pages of private correspondence written between 1912 and 1955. 
The United States' National Academy of Sciences commissioned the Albert Einstein Memorial, a monumental bronze and marble sculpture by Robert Berks, dedicated in 1979 at its Washington, D.C. campus adjacent to the National Mall. The National Academy of Sciences (NAS is a corporation in the United States whose members serve Pro bono as "advisers to the nation on science The Albert Einstein Memorial is a monumental Bronze Statue depicting Albert Einstein seated with manuscript papers in hand Robert Berks (b 1922 in Boston Massachusetts is an American Sculptor, industrial designer and planner Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D The National Mall is an open-area National park in Downtown Washington D
Einstein bequeathed the royalties from use of his image to The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Royalties (sometimes running royalties) are usage-based payments made by one party (the "licensee" to another (the "licensor" for ongoing use of an Personality rights are generally considered to consist of two types of rights the right to publicity or to keep one's image and likeness from being commercially exploited without permission The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (האוניברסיטה העברית בירושלים الجامعة العبرية في القدس abbreviated HUJI) is The Roger Richman Agency licenses the use of his name and associated imagery, as agent for the Hebrew University. The Roger Richman Agency Inc was a licensing agency that specialises in Personality rights. The verb license or grant license means to give permission The noun license is the document demonstrating that permission For other uses of the word Agent see Agent (disambiguation This is correct An Agent in Commercial Law is a person who is authorised 
In 1999, Albert Einstein was named "Person of the Century" by Time magazine, the Gallup poll recorded him as the fourth most admired person of the 20th century and according to The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History, Einstein is "the greatest scientist of the twentieth century and one of the supreme intellects of all time. This is a list of things named after Albert Einstein. Scientific and mathematical concepts Higher-dimensional Einstein gravity ''Time'' Person of the Century was created to honor one of the Time 100 The Most Important People of the Century. Time (trademarked in capitals as TIME) is a weekly American Newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and The Gallup Poll is the division of Gallup that regularly conducts public Opinion polls in the United States and more than 140 countries around the world Gallup's List of Widely Admired People, a poll of United States citizens to volunteer the names of the individuals whom they most admire is a list compiled annually by The Gallup "
A partial list of his memorials:
In 1990, his name was added to the Walhalla temple. The Albert Einstein Memorial is a monumental Bronze Statue depicting Albert Einstein seated with manuscript papers in hand Robert Berks (b 1922 in Boston Massachusetts is an American Sculptor, industrial designer and planner Photochemistry, a sub-discipline of Chemistry, is the study of the interactions between Atoms, small Molecules, and light (or Electromagnetic radiation An einstein is a unit used in Irradiance and in Photochemistry. A chemical element is a type of Atom that is distinguished by its Atomic number; that is by the number of Protons in its nucleus. Einsteinium (aɪnˈstaɪniəm is a Metallic Synthetic element. Asteroids, sometimes called Minor planets or planetoids', are bodies—primarily of the inner Solar System —that are smaller than planets but TemplateInfobox Planet. --> 2001 Einstein is an inner Main belt Asteroid discovered on The Albert Einstein Award (sometimes called the Albert Einstein Medal because it is accompanied with a gold medal is an award in Theoretical physics, that was established The Albert Einstein Peace Prize is given yearly by the Chicago -based Albert Einstein Peace Prize Foundation. The Walhalla Hall of Fame and Honor is a neo-classical Hall of fame located on the Danube River 10 km east of Regensburg, in Bavaria 
In the period before World War II, Albert Einstein was so well-known in America that he would be stopped on the street by people wanting him to explain "that theory". Albert Einstein has been the subject of or inspiration for many works of Popular culture. He finally figured out a way to handle the incessant inquiries. He told his inquirers "Pardon me, sorry! Always I am mistaken for Professor Einstein. "
Albert Einstein has been the subject of or inspiration for many novels, films, and plays. Einstein is a favorite model for depictions of mad scientists and absent-minded professors; his expressive face and distinctive hairstyle have been widely copied and exaggerated. The absent-minded professor is a Stock character of popular fiction usually portrayed as an Academic with important information but whose focus on their learning Time magazine's Frederic Golden wrote that Einstein was "a cartoonist's dream come true. Time (trademarked in capitals as TIME) is a weekly American Newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and "
Einstein's association with great intelligence has made the name Einstein synonymous with genius, often used in ironic expressions such as "Nice job, Einstein!". Irony is a literary or Rhetorical device, in which there is an incongruity or Discordance between what one says or does and what one means or
The following publications by Albert Einstein are referenced in this article. The History of special relativity consists of many theoretical and empirical results of physicists like Hendrik Lorentz and Henri Poincaré, which culminated in the Creation of General Relativity Early investigations As Albert Einstein later said the reason for the development of General relativity was that The Einstein Theory of Relativity is a Silent film released in 1923 by Fleischer Studios. In Physics, special relativity is a fundamental Theory about Space and Time, developed by Albert Einstein in 1905 as a modification Albert Einstein presented the theories of Special Relativity and General Relativity in groundbreaking publications that did not include references to the work of others Albert Einstein (1879–1955 was a renowned theoretical physicist of the 20th century who is best known for his theories of Special relativity and General This is a list of things named after Albert Einstein. Scientific and mathematical concepts Higher-dimensional Einstein gravity Introduction When a Metallic surface is exposed to Electromagnetic radiation above a certain threshold Frequency, the light is absorbed and Electrons In Quantum mechanics, the EPR paradox is a Thought experiment which challenged long-held ideas about the relation between the observed values of physical quantities In General relativity, the sticky bead argument is a simple thought experiment designed to show that Gravitational radiation is indeed predicted by General The Annus Mirabilis Papers (from Latin, Annus mirabilis, for 'extraordinary year' are the papers of Albert Einstein published in the " In Physics, theories of gravitation postulate mechanisms of interaction governing the movements of bodies with mass In Mathematics, especially in applications of Linear algebra to Physics, the Einstein notation or Einstein summation convention is a notational A theory of everything ( TOE) is a putative Theory of Theoretical physics that fully explains and links together all known physical phenomena Cousin coupleThis is a list of prominent individuals who have been romantically or maritally coupled with a Cousin, Niece, Nephew, Aunt Pauline Einstein, née Koch, the mother of Hermann Einstein ( August 30, 1847 &ndash October 10, 1902) was the father of Albert Einstein. A more complete list of his publications may be found at List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein. Albert Einstein (1879–1955 was a renowned theoretical physicist of the 20th century who is best known for his theories of Special relativity and General
|Notable teachers||Notable students|
|Alfred Kleiner||Hans Tanner|
|DATE OF BIRTH||March 14, 1879|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Ulm, Baden-Württemberg, German Empire|
|DATE OF DEATH||April 18, 1955|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Princeton, New Jersey|
The American Institute of Physics (AIP is an international body representing Physicists and publishing physics related journals Nova is a Popular science Television series from the US produced by WGBH Boston The Mathematics Genealogy Project is a web-based Database that gives an Academic genealogy based on Dissertation supervision relations North Dakota State University of Agriculture and Applied Sciences, more commonly known as North Dakota State University ( NDSU) is a Public university in The American Mathematical Society (AMS is an association of professional Mathematicians dedicated to the interests of mathematical research and scholarship which Alfred Kleiner ( April 24, 1849 &ndash July 3, 1916) was Professor of Experimental Physics at the University of Alma Dohee, and was Events 1489 - The Queen of Cyprus, Catherine Cornaro, sells her kingdom to Venice. Year 1879 ( MDCCCLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Ulm (ˈʊlm is a City in the German Bundesland of Baden-Württemberg, situated on the River Danube. Baden-Württemberg is one of the 16 states ( Bundesländer) of the Federal Republic of Germany. The German Empire is the name commonly used in English to describe Germany from 1871 to 1918 when it was a semi- Constitutional monarchy: beginning with the Unification Events 1025 - Bolesław Chrobry is crowned in Gniezno, becoming the first King of Poland. Year 1955 ( MCMLV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar) See also Princeton Township New Jersey, Borough of Princeton New Jersey Princeton Borough New Jersey Princeton Township New Jersey this New Jersey ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States.