An airport is a facility where aircraft such as airplanes, helicopters, and blimps take off and land. Overview Fixed-wing aircraft range from small training and recreational aircraft to Wide-body aircraft and military cargo aircraft. History Since 400 AD Chinese children have played with bamboo flying toys. Aircraft may also be stored or maintained at an airport. An airport consists of at least one surface such as a runway, a helipad, or water for takeoffs and landings, and often includes buildings such as hangars and terminal buildings. A runway ( RWY) is a strip of land on an Airport, on which Aircraft can take off and land. The word helipad is a portmanteau meaning helicopter landing pad, a landing area for Helicopters Though helicopters can usually land anywhere flat a fabricated Takeoff is the phase of Flight in which an Aircraft goes through a transition from moving along the ground ( Taxiing) to flying in the air usually Landing is the last part of a Flight, where a flying Animal, Aircraft, or Spacecraft returns to the ground A hangar is an enclosed structure to hold Aircraft in protective storage An airport terminal is a building at an Airport where passengers transfer between ground transportation and the facilities that allow them to board and disembark from Airplanes
Larger airports may have a variety of facilities and infrastructure, including fixed base operator services, seaplane docks and ramps, air traffic control, passenger facilities such as restaurants and lounges, and emergency services. In the Aviation industry a fixed base operator (also known as fixed base of operation) or FBO, is a service center at an Airport that may be A seaplane is a Fixed-wing aircraft capable of taking off and landing (alighting on water Air traffic control ( ATC) is a service provided by ground-based controllers who direct Aircraft on the ground and in the air Emergency services are organizations which ensure Public safety by addressing different emergencies A military airport is known as an airbase or air station. A military is an Organization authorized by its Nation to use force usually including use of Weapons in defending its Country (or by attacking An airbase, sometimes referred to as an Air Force Station, a military Airport or airfield, provides basing and support of Military The terms airfield, airstrip, and aerodrome may also be used to refer to airports, and the terms heliport, seaplane base, and STOLport refer to airports dedicated exclusively to helicopters, seaplanes, or short takeoff and landing aircraft. An aerodrome is an area on land or water (including any buildings installations and equipment used for the arrival and departure of aircraft A heliport is a small Airport suitable only for use by Helicopters Heliports typically contain one or more Helipads and may have limited facilities such A STOLport or STOLPORT is an Airport designed with STOL (Short Take-Off and Landing operations in mind normally having a short single runway STOL is an Initialism for short take-off and landing, a term used to describe Aircraft with very short Runway requirements In some jurisdictions, the term airport is used where the facility is licensed as such by the relevant government organization (e. g. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Transport Canada). The Federal Aviation Administration ( FAA) is an agency of the United States Department of Transportation with authority to regulate and oversee all aspects of Transport Canada is the department within the government of Canada which is responsible for developing Regulations, Policies and services Elsewhere the distinction is merely one of general appearance. Yet other areas define an airport by its having the necessary customs offices etc expected of a port, though the more general term is airport of entry. An airport of entry (AOE is an Airport that provides customs and immigration services for incoming flights
Smaller or less-developed airports — which represent the vast majority — often have a single runway shorter than 1,000 m (3,300 ft). Larger airports for airline flights generally have paved runways 2,000 m (6,600 ft) or longer. An airline provides air transport services for Passengers or Freight, generally with a recognized operating certificate or license Many small airports have dirt, grass, or gravel runways, rather than asphalt or concrete. Grass is the common word that generally describes Monocotyledonous green Plants The family Gramineae ( Poaceae) are the "true grasses" and include Gravel is rock that is of a specific Particle size range In Geology, gravel is any loose rock that is larger than two millimeters (2mm Asphalt ( is a sticky black and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid that is present in most crude Petroleums and in some natural deposits sometimes termed asphaltum Concrete is a construction material composed of Cement (commonly Portland cement) as well as other cementitious materials such as Fly ash and Slag
In the United States, the minimum dimensions for dry, hard landing fields are defined by the FAR Landing And Takeoff Field Lengths. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Federal Aviation Regulations, or FAR s are rules prescribed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA governing all Aviation activities in the These include considerations for safety margins during landing and takeoff. Heavier aircraft require longer runways.
The longest public-use runway in the world is at Qamdo Bangda Airport, in Bangda, Chamdo, Tibet Autonomous Region. Qamdo Bangda Airport ( Chinese: 昌都邦达机场 Tibetan: fill in) located in Bangda, Qamdo, Tibet, is the highest This article refers to the town of Chamdo For other uses see Qamdo. The Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR also called Xizang Autonomous Region (བོད་རང་སྐྱོང་ལྗོངས་ Wylie: Bod-rang-skyong-ljongs It has a length of 5,500 m (18,045 ft). The world's widest paved runway is at Ulyanovsk Vostochny Airport and is 105 m (344 ft) wide.
As of 2006, there were approximately 49,000 airports around the world, including 14,858 in the US. , the U. S. having the most in the world
Most of the world's airports are owned by local, regional, or national government bodies who then lease the airport to private corporations who oversee the airport's operation. For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. A corporation is a separate legal entity usually used to conduct business For example, BAA Limited (BAA) operates seven of the commercial airports in the United Kingdom, as well as several other airports outside of the UK. BAA Limited is the owner and operator of seven British Airports and the operator of several other airports worldwide making the company one of the largest transport The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Germany's Frankfurt Airport is managed by the quasi-private firm Fraport. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Frankfurt am Main International Airport, known in German as Flughafen Frankfurt am Main or Rhein-Main-Flughafen and in rest of Europe Fraport AG ( is the German transport company which operates the Frankfurt International Airport serving Frankfurt am Main and the smaller Frankfurt-Hahn
In the US and Canada, commercial airports are generally operated directly by government entities or government-created airport authorities (also known as port authorities). An airport authority is an independent entity charged with the operation and oversight of an Airport (or group of Airports.
Many US airports still lease part or all of their facilities to outside firms, who operate functions such as retail management and parking. Frankfurt am Main International Airport, known in German as Flughafen Frankfurt am Main or Rhein-Main-Flughafen and in rest of Europe Fraport AG ( is the German transport company which operates the Frankfurt International Airport serving Frankfurt am Main and the smaller Frankfurt-Hahn In the US, all commercial airport runways are certified by the FAA, but maintained by the local airport under the regulatory authority of the FAA.
Despite the reluctance to privatize airports in the US (despite the FAA sponsoring a privatization program since 1996), the government-owned, contractor-operated (GOCO) arrangement is the standard for the operation of commercial airports in the rest of the world. List of terms Acronyms information related to modern armour artillery infantry weapons and related military subject matter
In New Zealand, Auckland International Airport, the nation's main international airport, is fully privatised. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island Auckland Airport (formerly Auckland International Airport) is the largest and busiest Airport in New Zealand with over 13 million (some 7 million An international airport is an Airport typically equipped with Customs and Immigration facilities to handle international flights to and from other Ownership and operation of the 1,497 hectare complex is vested entirely with Auckland International Airport Limited, a public company, with the only governmental involvement being Airways Corporation of New Zealand's operation of air traffic control systems. Explanation The hectare is commonly used in most countries around the world especially in domains concerned with land planning and management such as Agriculture, A public company usually refers to a company that is permitted to offer its registered securities ( Stock, bonds, etc Similar arrangements pertain to Wellington and Christchurch airports, and most other main airports are operated by private companies. Christchurch International Airport is the main Airport that serves Christchurch, New Zealand.
In Argentina, 32 airports including the main airport Ministro Pistarini International Airport are operated by Aeropuertos Argentina 2000, a private company. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. Ministro Pistarini International Airport (Aeropuerto Internacional de Ezeiza "Ministro Pistarini" is located 22 km (13 On the other hand, 3 airports are operated by another company named London Supply.
Airports are divided into landside and airside areas. An airport terminal is a building at an Airport where passengers transfer between ground transportation and the facilities that allow them to board and disembark from Airplanes Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport ( Marathi:छ्त्रपती शिवाजी अंतरराष्ट्रीय विमानतळ, formerly Hyderabad International Airport (హైదరాబాదు అంతర్జాతీయ విమానాశ్రయము) also known as Rajiv Gandhi International Airport Landside areas include parking lots, public transportation train stations, tank farms and access roads. Parking lot (called a car park in Australia and the UK) is a cleared area that is more or less level and is intended for Parking vehicles |}A train station, railway station, railroad station, or station yard is a facility at which Passengers may board and alight from Trains An oil depot (sometimes called a tank farm, installation or oil terminal) is an industrial facility for the storage of oil and/or Petrochemical A road is an identifiable route, way or path between two or more places. Airside areas include all areas accessible to aircraft, including runways, taxiways, ramps and tank farms. A runway ( RWY) is a strip of land on an Airport, on which Aircraft can take off and land. A taxiway is a path on an Airport connecting Runways with ramps Hangars terminals and other facilities The airport ramp or apron is part of an Airport. It is usually the area where Aircraft are parked unloaded or loaded refueled or boarded Access from landside areas to airside areas is tightly controlled at most airports. Passengers on commercial flights access airside areas through terminals, where they can purchase tickets, clear security, check or claim luggage and board aircraft through gates. An airline provides air transport services for Passengers or Freight, generally with a recognized operating certificate or license A Gate in Aviation is a section at an Airport terminal for transferring Passengers and airline crews to an Aircraft. The waiting areas which provide passenger access to aircraft are typically called concourses, although this term is often used interchangeably with terminal.
The area where aircraft park next to a terminal to load passengers and baggage is known as a ramp (or, to the media and uninitiated, "the tarmac"). Tarmac (short for tarmacadam, a Portmanteau for Tar -penetration Macadam) is a type of highway surface, pioneered by John Parking areas for aircraft away from terminals are called aprons
Airports can be towered or non-towered, depending on air traffic density and available funds. A control tower, or more specifically an air traffic control tower is the name of the airport building from which the Air traffic control unit controls the movement of aircraft A non-towered airport, sometimes referred to as an uncontrolled airport, is an Airport with no operating tower or Air traffic control unit Due to their high capacity and busy airspace, many international airports have air traffic control located on site. Airspace means the portion of the atmosphere controlled by a particular country on top of its territory and Territorial waters or more generally any specific three-dimensional
Airports with international flights have customs and immigration facilities. Customs is an Authority or agency in a Country responsible for collecting and safeguarding customs duties and for controlling the flow of goods Immigration refers to the movement of people among countries While the movement of people has existed throughout human history at various levels modern immigration implies long-term However, as some countries have agreements that allow travel between them without customs and immigrations, such facilities are not a definitive need for an international airport. International flights often require a higher level of physical security, although in recent years, many countries have adopted the same level of security for international and domestic travel.
Modern engineers and architects are developing "floating airports" which could be located several miles at sea and which would use designs such as pneumatic stabilized platform technology. A Floating airport is an airport that would be built and situated on a Very large floating structure (VLFS located many miles out at sea utilizing a floatation type of device A Pneumatic stabilized platform (PSP is a technology used to float a Very large floating structure (VLFS
Airports have a captive audience, and consequently the prices charged for food are generally higher than are available elsewhere in the region. Ben Gurion International Airport (נמל התעופה בן גוריון Namal HaTe'ūfa Ben Gūryōn,, also referred to by its Hebrew acronym Natbag (נתב"ג Tel Aviv-Yafo (תֵּל ־אָבִיב-יָפוֹ تل أبيب Tal ʾAbīb) (usually Tel Aviv) is the second-largest city in Israel For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. Halifax Robert L Stanfield International Airport, or Halifax/Stanfield International Airport is an airport in However, some airports, such as John F. Kennedy International Airport's Terminal 8, have no restaurants at all. John F Kennedy International Airport is an International airport located in Queens County on Long Island in southeastern New York City about 12 miles (19 Airport fees are fees paid for use of services of airports, such as in the Subic Bay International Airport. Subic Bay International Airport ( Filipino: Paliparang Pandaigdig ng Look ng Subic) or SBIA serves as a secondary airport and a main diversion airport of However, some airports now regulate food costs to keep them comparable to so-called "street prices". This term is misleading as prices often match the manufacturer's suggested retail price (MSRP) but are almost never discounted. The ( manufacturer's) suggested retail price ( MSRP or SRP) list price or recommended retail price ( RRP) (originally
Several mid-large size airports also have facilities for premium passengers. In the US, these lounges are typically for international or long-haul first and business class passengers, paid members, and elite-level frequent fliers on long haul flights (regardless of what class they are in). In Aviation, the flight length is defined as the time airborne during a flight First class is a luxury Travel class on some airliners that exceeds "Business Class" "Premium Economy Class" and "Economy Class" Business class (also known as executive class or upper class is a high quality second-tier Travel class available on some commercial Airlines and rail lines A frequent flyer program (FFP is a Loyalty program offered by many Airlines. In the rest of the world, the lounges are not open to purchase, but can be used by all premium passengers and most elite frequent fliers. Some lounges are comparatively spartan and only offer a quiet place to sit and work; other lounges include meals and massage services.
In addition to people, airports are responsible for moving large volumes of cargo around the clock. Cargo airlines often have their own on-site and adjacent infrastructure to rapidly transfer parcels between ground and air modes of transportation. Cargo airlines (or airfreight carriers, and derivatives of these names are Airlines dedicated to the Transport of Cargo.
Aircraft maintenance, pilot services, aircraft rental, and hangar rental are most often performed by a fixed base operator (FBO). At major airports, particularly those used as hubs, airlines may operate their own support facilities. An airline hub is an Airport that an airline uses as a transfer point to get passengers to their intended destination
Some airports, typically military airbases, have long runways used as emergency landing sites. An airport terminal is a building at an Airport where passengers transfer between ground transportation and the facilities that allow them to board and disembark from Airplanes Houari Boumedienne Airport is a public Airport located 9 miles (17 km southeast of Algiers, the capital of Algeria. Many airbases have arresting equipment for fast aircraft, known as arresting gear - a strong cable suspended just above the runway and attached to a hydraulic reduction gear mechanism. Arresting gear (AKA "A-Gear" is the term used for mechanical systems designed to rapidly decelerate an aircraft as it lands The gear ratio is the relationship between the number of teeth on two Gears that are meshed or two Sprockets connected with a common Roller chain, or the Together with the landing aircraft's arresting hook, it is used in situations where the brakes would have little or no effect. A tailhook, also arresting hook or arrestor hook, is a device attached to the Empennage (rear of an Aircraft. A brake is a device for slowing or stopping the motion of a Machine or Vehicle, or alternatively a device to restrain it from starting to move again
Many large airports in the world are located next to or even above railway trunk routes, for instance Frankfurt Airport, Amsterdam Airport Schiphol, London Heathrow Airport, London Gatwick Airport and London Stansted Airport. "Railroad" and "Railway" both redirect here For other uses see Railroad (disambiguation. Amsterdam Airport Schiphol is the Netherlands ' main Airport, located 20 minutes (17 Gatwick Airport is London 's second largest Airport and the second busiest airport in the United Kingdom after Heathrow. London Stansted Airport is a passenger Airport located in the Uttlesford District of the English County of Essex about 38 miles (61 For local access, many airports have local train lines, rapid transit, light rail lines or other public transport systems, for instance the AirTrain JFK at John F. A rapid transit, underground, subway, elevated railway or metro(politan system is an electric passenger railway For specific light rail systems many of which use the words "light rail" as part of their name see List of light-rail transit systems. AirTrain JFK is an 81- Mile (13- km) People mover system in New York City that connects John F Kennedy International Airport in New York and the Silver Line T at Boston's Logan International Airport by the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA). The transportation system of New York City is a cooperation of complex systems of infrastructure The Silver Line is the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority 's (MBTA's sole Bus Rapid Transit (BRT line running in two unconnected sections from The Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority ( MBTA) is "a body politic and corporate and a political subdivision" of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts These systems are usually directly connected to the main terminals. Large airports usually have access also through freeways from which cars fed into two access roads, designed as loops, one sitting on top of the other. One level is for departing passengers and the other is for arrivals. This road concept was pioneered at Los Angeles International Airport. Los Angeles International Airport is the primary Airport serving Los Angeles, California, the second-most populated metropolitan area of
The distances passengers need to move within a large airport can be substantial. It is common for airports to provide moving walkways and buses. A moving walkway, moving sidewalk (in the US moving pavement (elsewhere walkalator, travelator, autowalk, horizontal escalator The Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport has a tram that takes people through the Concourses and Baggage Claim.
The earliest airplane takeoff and landing sites were grassy fields. The Avro 504 was a World War I Biplane Aircraft made by the Avro aircraft company and under licence by others Qantas Airways Limited (ˈkwɔntəs ( is the National airline of Australia. Sydney Airport (also known as Kingsford Smith International Airport), is located in the Sydney suburb of Mascot. The plane could approach at any angle that provided a favorable wind direction. A slight improvement was the dirt-only field, which eliminated the drag from grass. However, these only functioned well in dry conditions. They would eventually be replaced by concrete surfaces that allowed all-weather landings in daylight and at night.
The title of "world's oldest airport" is disputed, but College Park Airport in Maryland, US, established in 1909 by Wilbur Wright, is generally agreed to be the world's oldest continually operating airfield, although it serves only general aviation traffic. College Park Airport is a public Airport located 1 mile (2 km east of College Park, in Prince Georges County, Maryland, USA WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout
Bremen Airport opened in 1913 and remains in use, although it served as an American military field between 1945 and 1949. Bremen Airport or Flughafen Bremen serves the city of Bremen, Germany. Year 1913 ( MCMXIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Amsterdam Schiphol Airport opened on September 16, 1916 as a military airfield, but only accepted civil aircraft from December 17, 1920, allowing Sydney Airport in Sydney, Australia — which started operations in January 1920 — to claim to be the world's oldest continually operating commercial airport. Events 1400 - Owain Glyndŵr is declared Prince of Wales by his followers Year 1916 ( MCMXVI) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Civil aviation is one of two major categories of flying representing all non- Military aviation, both private and commercial Events 546 - Gothic War (535–554: The Ostrogoths of King Totila Year 1920 ( MCMXX) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920 of the Gregorian calendar Sydney Airport (also known as Kingsford Smith International Airport), is located in the Sydney suburb of Mascot. Sydney (ˈsɪdniː is the most populous city in Australia, with a Metropolitan area population of approximately 4 For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. .
The first known usage of the term "airport" appeared in a newspaper article in 1919, in reference to Bader Field in Atlantic City, New Jersey. Bader Field, also known as Atlantic City Municipal Airport, was a municipal General aviation Airport located in Atlantic City, New Jersey 
Increased aircraft traffic during World War I led to the construction of regular landing fields. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Airplanes had to approach these from certain directions. This led to the development of aids for directing the approach and landing slope.
Following the war, some of these military airfields added commercial facilities for handling passenger traffic. One of the earliest such fields was Paris - Le Bourget Airport at Le Bourget, near Paris. Paris - Le Bourget Airport (Aéroport de Paris - Le Bourget is an Airport located in Le Bourget and Dugny, 12 km north-northeast (NNE Le Bourget is a commune in the northeastern suburbs of Paris, France. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city The first international airport to open was the Croydon Airport, in South London, although an airport at Hounslow had been temporarily operating as such for nine months. Croydon Airport was an airport in South London which straddled the boundary between what are now the London boroughs of Croydon and Sutton. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Hounslow is the principal town in the London Borough of Hounslow.  In 1922, the first permanent airport and commercial terminal solely for commercial aviation was built at Königsberg, Germany. Königsberg in Bayern is a town in the Haßberge district in Bavaria, Germany. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The airports of this era used a paved "apron", which permitted night flying as well as landing heavier airplanes.
The first lighting used on an airport was during the later part of the 1920s; in the 1930s approach lighting came into use. These indicated the proper direction and angle of descent. The colors and flash intervals of these lights became standardized under the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). The International Civil Aviation Organization ( ICAO) an agency of the United Nations, codifies the principles and techniques of international air navigation In the 1940s, the slope-line approach system was introduced. This consisted of two rows of lights that formed a funnel indicating an aircraft's position on the glideslope. The Instrument Landing System (ILS is a ground-based Instrument approach system that provides precision guidance to an Aircraft approaching a Runway Additional lights indicated incorrect altitude and direction.
Following World War II, airport design began to become more sophisticated. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Passenger buildings were being grouped together in an island, with runways arranged in groups about the terminal. This arrangement permitted expansion of the facilities. But it also meant that passengers had to travel further to reach their plane.
An improvement in the landing field was the introduction of grooves in the concrete surface. These ran perpendicular to the direction of the landing aircraft and served to draw off excess water in rainy conditions that could build up in front of the plane's wheels.
Airport construction boomed during the 1960s with the increase in jet aircraft traffic. A jet aircraft is an Aircraft propelled by Jet engines Jet aircraft fly much faster than Propeller -powered aircraft and at higher altitudes -- as high as Runways were extended out to 3 km (9,800 ft). The fields were constructed out of reinforced concrete using a slip-form machine that produces a continual slab with no disruptions along the length. Reinforced concrete is Concrete in which reinforcement bars (" Rebars quot or fibers have been incorporated to strengthen a material that would otherwise be
Modern runways are thickest in the area where airplanes move slowly and are expected to have maximum load, i. e. runway ends. A common myth is that airplanes produce their greatest load during landing due to the "impact" of landing. This is untrue as much of the aircraft weight remains on the wings due to lift. Runways are constructed as smooth and level as possible.
Airports are uniquely represented by their International Air Transport Association airport code and ICAO airport code. List of airports is an organized list of airports Due to the size of the list it has been broken down into An IATA airport code, also known an IATA location identifier, IATA station code or simply a location identifier, is a three-letter code designating many The ICAO (ˌaɪˌkeɪˈoʊ Airport code or location indicator is a four-letter Alphanumeric Code designating each airport around International Air Transport Association (IATA) airport codes are often abbreviated forms of the common name of the airport, such as PHL for Philadelphia International Airport. Airports sometimes retain their previous IATA code when an airport's name is changed. O'Hare International Airport in Chicago retains the IATA code ORD, from its former name of Orchard Field. Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States.
The name of the airport itself can be its location, such as Hong Kong International Airport. Hong Kong International Airport is the main airport in Hong Kong. It can be the name of a celebrity, commonly a politician, e. A politician (from Greek " Polis " is an individual who is involved in influencing public decision making through the influence of Politics or a person g. Ninoy Aquino International Airport, Indira Gandhi International Airport, Atatürk International Airport, Toronto Pearson International Airport or Charles de Gaulle International Airport. The Ninoy Aquino International Airport ( Filipino: Paliparang Pandaigdig ng Ninoy Aquino) or NAIA (ˈnæijɑ is the Airport serving the Indira Gandhi International Airport ( Hindi: इंदिरा गांधी अंतरराष्ट्रीय हवाई अड्डा is an Airport Atatürk International Airport (formerly Yeşilköy International Airport) (Atatürk Uluslararası Havalimanı is the major international Airport in Istanbul Lester B Pearson International Airport is a major International airport serving Toronto, Ontario, Canada, situated 27 kilometres (17 mi northwest Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport (Aéroport Paris-Charles de Gaulle also known as Roissy Airport (or just Roissy in French in the Paris area is Airports may also be named after a person associated with the region it serves or prominent figures in aviation history, such as Will Rogers World Airport, Liverpool John Lennon Airport, Imam Khomeini International Airport, or more recently Belfast City Airport was renamed George Best Belfast City Airport in memory of the football star who was born in Northern Ireland. Will Rogers World Airport is located in southwestern Oklahoma City Oklahoma. Imam Khomeini International Airport ( is located in Tehran, Iran. George Best Belfast City Airport is an Airport in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a Team sport played between two teams of eleven players and is widely considered Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a Country within the United Kingdom, lying in the northeast of
Airport names may include the word "International" reflecting their ability to handle international aviation traffic, although the airport may not actually operate any such flights, such as Texel International Airport. Texel International Airport is a small airport on the Island of Texel in the north of The Netherlands. Some airports with international immigration facilities may also choose to drop the word from their airport names (eg. Perth Airport, Singapore Changi Airport). Perth Airport is an Australian domestic and international Airport located south of Guildford Western Australia, and is the major commercial airport
Airport security normally requires baggage checks, metal screenings of individual persons, and rules against any object that could be used as a weapon. Airport security refers to the techniques and methods used in protecting Airports and Aircraft from Crime. An X-ray machine is a device used by Radiographers to acquire an X-ray image Metal detectors use Electromagnetic induction to detect Metal. Since the September 11, 2001 attacks, airport security has been dramatically increased.
Away from the terminal, there is a large team of people who work to ensure aircraft can land, take off, and move around quickly and safely.
The majority of the world's airports are non-towered, with no air traffic control presence. Air traffic control ( ATC) is a service provided by ground-based controllers who direct Aircraft on the ground and in the air A non-towered airport, sometimes referred to as an uncontrolled airport, is an Airport with no operating tower or Air traffic control unit However, at particularly busy airports, or airports with other special requirements, there is an air traffic control (ATC) system whereby controllers (usually ground-based) direct aircraft movements via radio or other communications links. Air traffic controllers are people who operate the Air traffic control system to expedite and maintain a safe and orderly flow of air traffic and help prevent Radio is the transmission of signals by Modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible Light. This coordinated oversight facilitates safety and speed in complex operations where traffic moves in all three dimensions. Air traffic control responsibilities at airports are usually divided into at least two main areas: ground and tower, though a single controller may work both stations. The busiest airports also have clearance delivery, apron control, and other specialized ATC stations.
Ground Control is responsible for directing all ground traffic in designated "movement areas," except the traffic on runways. This includes planes, baggage trains, snowplows, grass cutters, fuel trucks, and a wide array of other vehicles. Ground Control will instruct these vehicles on which taxiways to use, which runway they will use (in the case of planes), where they will park, and when it is safe to cross runways. When a plane is ready to take off it will stop short of the runway, at which point it will be turned over to Tower Control. After a plane has landed, it will depart the runway and be returned to Ground Control.
Tower Control controls aircraft on the runway and in the controlled airspace immediately surrounding the airport. Halifax Robert L Stanfield International Airport, or Halifax/Stanfield International Airport is an airport in A control tower, or more specifically an air traffic control tower is the name of the airport building from which the Air traffic control unit controls the movement of aircraft Controlled airspace is an aviation term used to describe Airspace in which traffic levels are such that it has been determined that Air traffic control (ATC must Tower controllers may use radar to locate an aircraft's position in three-dimensional space, or they may rely on pilot position reports and visual observation. Radar is a system that uses electromagnetic waves to identify the range altitude direction or speed of both moving and fixed objects such as Aircraft, ships They coordinate the sequencing of aircraft in the traffic pattern and direct aircraft on how to safely join and leave the circuit. Aircraft which are only passing through the airspace must also contact Tower Control in order to be sure that they remain clear of other traffic.
All airports use a traffic pattern (often called a traffic circuit outside the U. An airfield traffic pattern is a standard path followed by Aircraft when taking off or Landing. S. ) to assure smooth traffic flow between departing and arriving aircraft. Generally, this pattern is a circuit consisting of five "legs" that form a rectangle (two legs and the runway form one side, with the remaining legs forming three more sides). Each leg is named (see diagram), and ATC directs pilots on how to join and leave the circuit. Traffic patterns are flown at one specific altitude, usually 800 or 1,000 ft (244 m or 305 m) above ground level (AGL). In Aviation and Atmospheric sciences, an Altitude is said to be above ground level ( AGL) when it is measured with respect to the underlying Standard traffic patterns are left-handed, meaning all turns are made to the left. Right-handed patterns do exist, usually because of obstacles such as a mountain, or to reduce noise for local residents. A mountain is a Landform that extends above the surrounding Terrain in a limited area with a peak The predetermined circuit helps traffic flow smoothly because all pilots know what to expect, and helps reduce the chance of a mid-air collision. A mid-air collision is an aviation accident where two or more aircraft come into unplanned contact during flight
At extremely large airports, a circuit is in place but not usually used. Rather, aircraft (usually only commercial with long routes) request approach clearance while they are still hours away from the airport, often before they even take off from their departure point. Large airports have a frequency called Clearance Delivery which is used by departing aircraft specifically for this purpose. This then allows airplanes to take the most direct approach path to the runway and land without worrying about interference from other aircraft. While this system keeps the airspace free and is simpler for pilots, it requires detailed knowledge of how aircraft are planning to use the airport ahead of time and is therefore only possible with large commercial airliners on pre-scheduled flights. The system has recently become so advanced that controllers can predict whether an aircraft will be delayed on landing before it even takes off; that aircraft can then be delayed on the ground, rather than wasting expensive fuel waiting in the air.
There are a number of aids available to pilots, though not all airports are equipped with them. A Visual Approach Slope Indicator (VASI) helps pilots fly the approach for landing. The Visual Approach Slope Indicator (VASI is a system of Lights on the side of an airport Runway that provides visual descent guidance information during Some airports are equipped with a VHF omnidirectional range (VOR) to help pilots find the direction to the airport. This article is about the radio navigation aid see VOR for other uses VORs are often accompanied by a distance measuring equipment (DME) to determine the distance to the VOR. Distance Measuring Equipment (DME is a transponder-based radio navigation technology that measures distance by timing the propagation delay of VHF or UHF radio signals VORs are also located off airports, where they serve to provide airways for aircraft to navigate upon. In poor weather, pilots will use an instrument landing system (ILS) to find the runway and fly the correct approach, even if they cannot see the ground. The Instrument Landing System (ILS is a ground-based Instrument approach system that provides precision guidance to an Aircraft approaching a Runway The number of instrument approaches based on the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS) is rapidly increasing and may eventually be the primary means for instrument landings. Basic concept of GPS operation A GPS receiver calculates its position by carefully timing the signals sent by the constellation of GPS Satellites high above the Earth
Larger airports sometimes offer precision approach radar (PAR), but these systems are more common at military air bases than civilian airports. Precision approach radar (PAR is a type of Radar guidance system designed to provide lateral and vertical guidance to an aircraft pilot for landing until the missed The aircraft's horizontal and vertical movement is tracked via radar, and the controller tells the pilot his position relative to the approach slope. A final approach is the last leg in an aircraft's approach to landing Once the pilots can see the runway lights, they may continue with a visual landing.
Airport guidance signs provide direction and information to taxiing aircraft and airport vehicles. Smaller airports may have few or no signs, relying instead on airport diagrams and charts.
There are two classes of signage at airports, with several types of each:
Mandatory instruction signs are white on red. Red is any of a number of similar Colors evoked by light consisting predominantly of the longest wavelengths of Light discernible by the human eye in the wavelength They show entrances to runways or critical areas. Vehicles and aircraft are required to stop at these signs until the control tower gives clearance to proceed.
Many airports have lighting that help guide planes using the runways and taxiways at night or in rain or fog. A runway ( RWY) is a strip of land on an Airport, on which Aircraft can take off and land. Fog is a cloud that is in contact with the ground Stratus clouds are usually the only clouds that touch the ground
On runways, green lights indicate the beginning of the runway for landing, while red lights indicate the end of the runway. Runway edge lighting consists of white lights spaced out on both sides of the runway, indicating the edge. Runway Edge Lights are used to outline the edges of Runways during periods of darkness or restricted visibility conditions Some airports have more complicated lighting on the runways including lights that run down the centerline of the runway and lights that help indicate the approach (an Approach Lighting System, or ALS). Low-traffic airports may use Pilot Controlled Lighting to save electricity and staffing costs. Pilot Controlled Lighting ( PCL) also known as Aircraft Radio Control of Aerodrome Lighting ( ARCAL) or Pilot Activated Lighting ( PAL
Along taxiways, blue lights indicate the taxiway's edge, and some airports have embedded green lights that indicate the centerline.
Weather observations at the airport are crucial to safe take-offs and landings. Surface weather observations are the fundamental data used for safety as well as climatological reasons to forecast weather and issue warnings worldwide Automated airport weather stations are automated sensor suites which are designed to serve Aviation and meteorological observing needs for safe and efficient An automatic weather station (AWS is an automated version of the traditional Weather station, either to save human labour or to enable measurements from remote areas In the US and Canada, the vast majority of airports, large and small, have some form of automated airport weather station, whether an AWOS, ASOS or AWSS. A weather station is a facility with instruments and equipment to make observations of atmospheric conditions in order to provide information to make weather forecasts Most larger airports also have human observers to provide additional observations to supplement the automated station. These weather observations are available over the radio, through Automatic Terminal Information Service (ATIS) or via the ATC. Automatic Terminal Information Service, or ATIS, is a continuous broadcast of recorded noncontrol information in busier terminal (i
Planes take-off and land into the wind in order to achieve maximum performance. Because pilots need instantaneous information during landing, a windsock is also kept in view of the runway. A windsock or wind cone is a conical Textile Tube designed to indicate Wind direction and relative Wind speed.
Air safety is an important concern in the operation of an airport, and almost every airfield includes equipment and procedures for handling emergency situations. Air safety is a term encompassing the theory investigation and categorization of flight failures, and the prevention of such failures through regulation as well as through Commercial airfields include one or more emergency vehicles and their crew that are specially equipped for dealing with airfield accidents, crew and passenger extractions, and the hazards of highly flammable aviation fuel. An emergency vehicle is any Vehicle that is designated and authorized to Respond to an Emergency. An accident is a specific identifiable unexpected unusual and unintended external event which occurs in a particular time and place without apparent or deliberate Aviation fuel is a specialized type of Petroleum -based fuel used to power Aircraft. The crews are also trained to deal with situations such as bomb threats, hijacking, and terrorist activities. Hijacking (also known as skyjacking and aircraft piracy) is the take over of an Aircraft, by a person or group usually armed Terrorism is the systematic use of terror especially as a means of coercion
Potential hazards to aircraft include debris, nesting birds, and reduced friction levels due to environmental conditions such as ice, snow, or rain. The Controlled Impact Demonstration (or more colloquially the Crash In the Desert) was a joint project between NASA and the Federal Aviation Administration Birds ( class Aves) are bipedal endothermic ( Warm-blooded) Vertebrate animals that lay eggs. Ice is a Solid phase, usually crystalline, of a Non-metalic substance that is liquid or gas at Room temperature, such as Ammonia "Snowfall" redirects here For other uses see Snow (disambiguation or Snowfall (disambiguation. Rain is Liquid precipitation. On Earth it is the condensation of atmospheric Water vapor into drops heavy enough to fall often making it to Part of runway maintenance is airfield rubber removal which helps maintain friction levels. Airfield rubber removal, also known as runway rubber removal is the use of High pressure water, Abrasives, Chemicals and/or other mechanical means The fields must be kept clear of debris using cleaning equipment so that loose material doesn't become a projectile and enter an engine duct (see foreign object damage). In adverse weather conditions, ice and snow clearing equipment can be used to improve traction on the landing strip. For waiting aircraft, equipment is used to spray special deicing fluids on the wings. De-icing is the process of removing Ice from a Surface. Anti-icing is the process of Preventing ice from forming on a surface
Many airports are built near open fields or wetlands. A wetland is an area of Land consisting of Soil that is Saturated with Moisture, such as a Swamp, Marsh, or Bog These tend to attract bird populations, which can pose a hazard to aircraft in the form of bird strikes. A bird strike (sometimes birdstrike, bird hit, or BASH (Bird Aircraft Strike Hazard in Aviation is a collision between an airborne animal (usually Airport crews often need to discourage birds from taking up residence.
Some airports are located next to parks, golf courses, or other low-density uses of land. Other airports are located near densely-populated urban or suburban areas. In the 1980s, a conflict arose in San Jose, California, when a plane attempting to land at Reid-Hillview Airport (built in the 1930s) collided with a Macy's department store at the Eastridge shopping mall. Reid-Hillview Airport of Santa Clara County is located in the eastern part of San Jose, south of San Francisco Bay, in Santa Clara County, California Macy's is a chain of mid-range American Department stores Its Flagship store in Herald Square, New York City has been billed A department store is a Retail establishment which specializes in selling a wide range of products without a single predominant merchandise line. Many local residents tried to get the airport shut down, even though it had been there for fifty years: their neighborhoods (and the mall) were about a decade old.
An airport can have areas where collisions between airplanes on the ground tend to occur. Records are kept of any incursions where airplanes or vehicles are in an inappropriate location, allowing these "hot spots" to be identified. A runway incursion, as defined by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO on April 27, 2006, is Any occurrence at an These locations then undergo special attention by transportation authorities (such as the FAA in the US) and airport administrators.
During the 1980s, a phenomenon known as microburst became a growing concern due to accidents caused by microburst wind shear. A microburst is a very localized column of sinking air producing damaging divergent and Straight-line winds at the surface that are similar to but distinguishable from An accident is a specific identifiable unexpected unusual and unintended external event which occurs in a particular time and place without apparent or deliberate Wind shear, sometimes referred to as windshear or Wind gradient, is a difference in Wind speed and direction over a relatively (For example, see Delta Air Lines Flight 191. Delta Air Lines Flight 191 was an Airline service from Fort Lauderdale Florida 's Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport, bound for Los ) Microburst radar was developed as an aid to safety during landing, giving two to five minutes warning to aircraft in the vicinity of the field of a microburst event.
Some airfields now have a special surface known as soft concrete at the end of the runway that behaves somewhat like styrofoam, bringing the plane to a relatively rapid halt as the material disintegrates. Styrofoam is a trademark for polystyrene Thermal insulation, a material manufactured by Dow Chemical Company. These surfaces are useful when the runway is located next to a body of water or other hazard, and prevent the planes from overrunning the end of the field.
Most airports have ground crew handling the loading and unloading of passengers, crew, baggage and other services. Ground support equipment (GSE is found at an Airport, usually on the ramp, the servicing area by the terminal. Some ground crew are linked to specific airlines operating at the airport.
The traffic generated by airports both in the air and on the surface can be a major source of aviation noise and air pollution which may interrupt nearby residents' sleep and produce other noise health effects. Aircraft noise is defined as Sound produced by any aircraft or its components during various phases of a flight on the ground while parked such as auxiliary power Air pollution is the human introduction into the atmosphere of Chemicals Particulate matter, or Biological materials that cause harm or discomfort Noise health effects are the Health consequences of elevated Sound levels Elevated workplace or other Noise can cause Hearing impairment The construction of new airports, or addition of runways to existing airports, is often resisted by local residents because of the effect on the countryside, historical sites, local flora and fauna. In Botany, flora ( Plural: floras or florae has two meanings The first meaning flora of an area or of time period, refers to all Fauna is all of the Animal life of any particular region or time Due to the risk of collision between birds and airplanes, large airports undertake population control programs where they frighten or shoot birds.
The construction of airports has been known to change local weather patterns. The weather is a set of all the phenomena occurring in a given Atmosphere at a given Time. For example, because they often flatten out large areas, they can be susceptible to fog in areas where fog rarely forms. In addition, because they generally replace trees and grass with pavement, they often change drainage patterns in agricultural areas, leading to more flooding, run-off and erosion in the surrounding land. A tree is a perennial Woody plant. It is most often defined as a woody plant that has many secondary branches supported clear of the ground on a single main stem or Drainage is the natural or artificial removal of surface and sub-surface water from a given area Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture A flood is an overflow of an expanse of water that submerges land a deluge Erosion is the carrying away or displacement of solids ( Sediment, Soil, rock and other particles usually by the agents of currents such as wind
Some of the airport administrations prepare and publish annual environmental reports in order to show how they consider these environmental concerns in airport management issues and how they protect environment from airport operations. Environmentalism is a broad philosophy and Social movement centered on a concern for the conservation and improvement of the environment. These reports contains all environmental protection measures performed by airport administration in terms of water, air, soil and noise pollution, resource conservation and protection of natural life around the airport.
An airbase, sometimes referred to as a military airport or airfield, provides basing and support of military aircraft. An airbase, sometimes referred to as an Air Force Station, a military Airport or airfield, provides basing and support of Military A military aircraft is any fixed-wing or rotary-wing Aircraft that is in the current employ of a Military power Some airbases provide facilities similar to their civilian counterparts. For example, RAF Brize Norton in Oxfordshire, England has a terminal which caters to passengers for the Royal Air Force's scheduled Tristar flights to the Falkland Islands. RAF Brize Norton in Oxfordshire, about 50 miles west of London, England, United Kingdom, is the largest airbase of the Royal Air Force History See also History of Oxfordshire The county of Oxfordshire was formed in the early years of the 10th century and is broadly situated in the England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Military airbases may also be co-located with civilian airports, sharing the same tower/air traffic control facilities, runways, taxiways and emergency services, but with separate terminals, parking areas, hangars and shelter areas. Hardened Aircraft Shelters (HAS or Protective Aircraft Shelter (PAS are a reinforced structure to house and protect Military aircraft from enemy attack Examples of this are Bardufoss Airport/Bardufoss Air Station and Gardermoen Airport/Gardermoen Air Station, both in Norway. Bardufoss Airport (Norwegian Bardufoss lufthavn) is situated in the municipality of Målselv in Troms, North Norway. Bardufoss Air Station (Norwegian Bardufoss flystasjon) is located in the municipality of Målselv in Troms county in Northern Norway. Oslo Airport Gardermoen (Norwegian Oslo lufthavn Gardermoen) is located at Gardermoen in Ullensaker, Norway, 48 km north of Oslo Gardermoen Air Station (Norwegian Gardermoen flystasjon) is located about 50 km north of Oslo, Norway. Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional A special variant of a military airfield is the aircraft carrier. An aircraft carrier is a Warship designed with
An aircraft carrier is a warship that functions as a floating airport for military aircraft. An aircraft carrier is a Warship designed with A warship is a Ship that is built and primarily intended for Combat. Aircraft carriers allow a naval force to project air power great distances without having to depend on local bases for land-based aircraft. Air power redirects here for electrical and mechanical energy supplied by air movement see Wind power After their development in World War I, aircraft carriers replaced the battleship as the centrepiece of a modern fleet during World War II. A battleship is a large heavily armored Warship with a main battery consisting of the largest Calibre of Guns Battleships were A fleet, or naval fleet is a large formation of Warships, and the largest formation in any Navy. Unescorted carriers are considered vulnerable to missile or submarine attacks and therefore travel as part of a carrier battle group that includes a wide array of other ships with specific functions. A missile (see also pronunciation differences) is a self-propelled explosive Projectile used as a weapon towards a target A submarine is a Watercraft that can operate independently below water as distinct from a Submersible that has only limited underwater capability A carrier battle group (CVBG consists of an Aircraft carrier (CV and its escorts
Airports have played major roles in motion pictures and television programs due to being transportation hubs, but also because of their characteristics. A television program (US television programme (UK or television show (U One such example of this is the movie The Terminal, a film about a man who becomes permanently grounded in an airport terminal and must survive only on the food and shelter provided by the airport. The Terminal is a 2004 Comedy-drama Film written by Andrew Niccol and Sacha Gervasi. Movies such as Airplane!, Airport, Die Hard 2, Soul Plane, Jackie Brown, Get Shorty, Home Alone, Liar Liar, Passenger 57, Final Destination, Unaccompanied Minors, Catch Me if You Can, Rendition and The Langoliers, as well as television series like Lost also have significant parts of their story set within airports. Airplane! is a 1980 American Comedy film directed and written by David Zucker Jim Abrahams and Jerry Zucker. Airport is a 1970 film based on the 1968 Arthur Hailey novel of the same name. Die Hard 2, promotionally known as Die Hard 2 Die Harder, is a 1990 Action film, and the first Sequel in the Soul Plane is a comedy motion picture from MGM, released in the United States on May 28, 2004 (see 2004 Jackie Brown is a 1997 Crime film written and directed by Quentin Tarantino. Get Shorty is a novel by American novelist Elmore Leonard, first published in 1990, and a movie adaptation of the same name, released in Home Alone is a popular movie series The term usually refers to the first film in the series, which by the end of its run was the third highest grossing film of all Liar Liar is a 1997 American Comedy film written by Paul Guay and Stephen Mazur directed by Tom Shadyac and starring Jim Carrey Passenger 57 is a 1992 Action film starring Wesley Snipes and Bruce Payne. Final Destination is a 2000 Supernatural thriller, about a group of teenagers who 'cheat death' by avoiding a plane crash when one of them Unaccompanied Minors (also called Grounded Unaccompanied Minors) is a 2006 film directed by Paul Feig and starring Lewis Black Catch Me if You Can is a 2002 Black comedy film loosely based on Frank Abagnale Jr The Langoliers is one of four novellas published in the Stephen King book Four Past Midnight in 1990. Lost is an Emmy and Golden Globe award-winning American serial drama television series.
Several computer simulation games put the player in charge of an airport. These include Airport Tycoon and the sequels; Airport Tycoon 2 and Airport Tycoon 3. Airport Tycoon is an Business simulation game, released for Windows 95/98 in 2000. Airport Tycoon 2 is the sequel to Airport Tycoon in which the player builds and manages an airport Airport Tycoon 3 is a Business simulation game, the sequel to Airport Tycoon and Airport Tycoon 2, in which the player There is also a Japanese series of games called Air Traffic Controller. is a simulation Computer game series that simulates the operation of an Airport developed by TechnoBrain.
Each national aviation authority has a source of information about airports in their country. Aeronautical Information Service also known as AIS is an important support role to the Convention onInternational Civil Aviation as defined by Annex 15 of the International Civil Aviation This will contain information on airport height, airport lighting, runway information, communications facilities and frequencies, hours of operation, nearby NAVAIDs and contact information where prior arrangement for landing is necessary.