African socialism is a belief in sharing economic resources in a "traditional" African way, as distinct from classical socialism. Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution Arab Socialism (الاشتراكية العربية al-ishtirākīya al-‘arabīya) is a political ideology based on an amalgamation of Pan-Arabism and Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based De Leonism, occasionally known as Marxism-Deleonism, is a form of Marxism developed by Daniel De Leon. Democratic socialism is a description used by various socialist movements tendencies and organizations to emphasize the democratic character of their political orientation Eco-socialism, Green socialism or Socialist ecology is an Ideology merging aspects of Marxism, Socialism, Green politics Guild socialism is a political movement advocating workers' control of industry through the medium of trade-related Guilds. Libertarian socialism is a group of political philosophies that aim to create a society without political economic or social hierarchies – a society in which all violent Market socialism is a term used to denote two different Economic system (s based in Socialism which operate according to Market principles The term revolutionary socialism refers to Socialist tendencies that advocate the need for fundamental social change through Revolution, as a strategy to achieve a Social anarchism, socialist anarchism, anarcho-socialism, anarchist socialism or Communitarian anarchism,(sometimes used interchangeably with Social democracy is a Political ideology of the left and centre-left A socialist market economy is an economic form that is practiced in the People's Republic of China, where it is called Socialism with Chinese characteristics Utopian socialism is a term used to define the first currents of modern socialist thought Religious socialism is a Term used to describe forms of Socialism that are based on Religious values. Buddhist socialism is a Political ideology which advocates Socialism based on the principles of Buddhism. Christian socialism generally refers to those on the Christian left whose politics are both Christian and Socialist and who see these two philosophies as Islamic socialism is a term coined by various Muslim leaders to meet the demand for a more spiritual form of Socialism. Criticisms of Socialism range from disagreements over the efficiency of socialist economic and political models to condemnation of states described by themselves The history of socialism, sometimes termed 'modern socialism' finds its origins in the French Revolution of 1789 and the changes brought about by the Industrial Revolution Socialist economics is a broad and sometimes controversial term The term socialist state (or socialist republic, or workers' state) can carry one of several different (but related meanings In strictly speaking any Since the 18th century Socialist ideas have developed and separated into many different types of socialism. The following is a list of self-identified Socialists divided by geographical location The International Workingmen's Association (IWA, sometimes called the First International, was an international socialist organization which aimed at uniting a variety The Second International (1889-1916 was an organization of socialist and labour parties formed in Paris on July 14, 1889. The Comintern ( Com munist Intern ational also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organisation founded in Moscow The Fourth International ( FI) is a communist international organisation working in opposition to both Capitalism and Stalinism. Socialist International is a worldwide organization of socialist ( social democratic and labour) political parties The World Federation of Democratic Youth (WFDY is a left-wing youth organization recognized by the United Nations as an international youth Non-governmental organization The International Union of Socialist Youth (IUSY encompasses socialist, Social democratic and Labour Party youth organizations from more than 100 states Anarchism is a Political philosophy encompassing theories and attitudes which support the elimination of all compulsory Government, i Worker self-management (or autogestion) is a form of workplace decision-making in which the workers themselves agree on choices (for issues like customer care general production Class struggle is the active expression of Class conflict looked at from any kind of socialist perspective Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system The " dictatorship of the proletariat " or workers' state is a term employed by Marxists that refers to what they see as a temporary state between the Egalitarianism (derived from the French word égal, meaning equal) is a political doctrine that holds that all people should be treated as equals and have Equality of outcome or equality of condition is a form of Egalitarianism which seeks to reduce or eliminate differences in material condition between individuals or Impossibilism is an interpretation of Marxism. It emphasizes the limited value of reforms in overturning capitalism and insists on revolutionary political action as the only For the Marxist concept of internationalism see Proletarian internationalism. Marxism is the political philosophy and practice derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. A proletarian revolution is a social and/or political Revolution in which the Working class attempts to overthrow the Bourgeoisie. Socialism in One Country was a thesis developed by Nikolai Bukharin in 1925 and adopted as state policy by Joseph Stalin. A trade union or labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages hours and working conditions forming Utilitarianism is the idea that the moral worth of an action is solely determined by its contribution to overall Utility, that is its contribution to happiness Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution Many African politicians of the 1950s and 1960s professed their support for African socialism, although definitions and interpretations of this term varied considerably. The 1950s Decade refers to the years of 1950 to 1959 inclusive The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969
After the independence of most African countries during the 1960s, newly formed African regimes assumed they could not easily claim a great victory over the Europeans if they continued to use the same system that those oppressors had designed, namely capitalism, since all imperial regimes had been mainly capitalist, even if their adherence to free markets was not absolute. Capitalism is the Economic system in which the Means of production are owned by private Persons and operated for Profit and where An empire (from the Latin " Imperium " denoting military Command within the ancient Roman government) is a State that Socialism was popular among African leaders because it represented a break from the imperial ruling tradition. Socialism seemed, to many, to be all that capitalism was not.
At the same time, however, advocates of African socialism claimed that it was not the opposite of capitalism nor a response to it, but something completely different. Nationalists claimed it was fully African, appealing to an African identity that was even stronger than anti-capitalism. Their socialism, they claimed, was merely a recapturing of the spirit of what it was to be African.
A multitude of reasons were presented in support of African socialism. Many believed that Africa was too far “behind” capitalist states in terms of economic development to compete fairly with them. Others appealed to a sense of unity that would not be provided by the competitive capitalist systems. Still others believed that the development of Africa should be planned in order to avoid wasting scarce resources, and avoid future class conflicts. Class conflict, also class war or class warfare, is both the friction that accompanies social relationships between members or groups of different
African identity and socialism were often intertwined. Some leaders claimed that Africa had always been “socialist,” and appealed to socialism as a unifying cultural element for Africans. This was not by any means the only form of African identity that they appealed to, but the combination of socialism and African identity was doubly effective in ending the era of old imperial regimes. Social revolution usually went hand-in-hand with socialism.
However, most regimes following African socialist programmes did not deliver on the promises of self-sufficiency, prosperity, and equality (partly as a result of the empowerment of the governments at the expense of the people), and as a result many have grown disillusioned with African socialism.
Leaders such as Agostinho Neto, Marien Ngouabi, Kwame Nkrumah, Mengistu Haile Mariam, and Siad Barre, while avowed socialists, were widely considered to build their respective countries on a structure that was much more Soviet-oriented than indigenous. Michel Micombero (1940&ndash July 16, 1983) was the first President of Burundi from November 28, 1966 to November Eduardo Chivambo Mondlane ( June 20 1920 - February 23 1969) served as President of the Mozambican Liberation Front (FRELIMO from 1962 Samuel Daniel Shafiishuna Nujoma (born May 12, 1929 in Ongandjera, South West Africa (now Omusati Region) is a former President Jaramogi Ajuma Oginga Odinga (c 1911 &ndash January 20, 1994) was a Luo Chief who became a prominent figure in Kenya 's struggle for independence Vice Admiral Didier Ratsiraka (born 4 November 1936) was the President of Madagascar from 1975 until 1993 and from 1997 until 2002 Jerry John Rawlings (born Jeremiah Rawlings John June 22, 1947 in Accra) was twice the Head of state of Ghana and was the 1st Captain Thomas Isidore Noël Sankara ( December 21, 1949 – October 15, 1987) was the leader of Burkina Faso (formerly Sir Léopold Sédar Senghor ( 9 October 1906 20 December 2001) was a Senegalese Poet, politician and cultural theorist who Ahmed Sékou Touré (var Ahmen Seku Ture) (January 9 1922--March 26 1984 was an African political leader and president of the Republic of Guinea António Agostinho Neto (September 17 1922 &ndash September 10 1979 served as the first President of Angola (1975&ndash1979 leading the Popular Movement for the Liberation Marien Ngouabi (or N'Gouabi) ( December 31, 1938 – March 18, 1977) was the military President of the Republic of the Congo Kwame Nkrumah ( September 21, 1909 - April 27, 1972) was an influential 20th century advocate of Pan-Africanism, and the leader of Mengistu Haile Mariam (መንግስቱ ኃይለ ማርያም məngɨstu hi lə maryam (born 1937 a repression campaign against the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Party and Mohamed Siad Barre (Maxamed Siyaad Barre محمّد سياد بري) (b A soviet (сове́т, "council" originally was a workers' local council in late Imperial Russia.
The most notable organizations identified with African socialism were black liberation movements in South Africa during the Apartheid regime. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa The largest of these were the African National Congress (ANC) and the Pan-Africanist Congress (PAC). The African National Congress (ANC has been South Africa 's governing party supported by its Tripartite alliance with the Congress of South African Trade Unions The Pan Africanist Congress of Azania (once known as the Pan Africanist Congress, abbreviated as the PAC was a South African liberation movement that The ANC supported racial equality, but the PAC's position was 'Africa for the Africans!'. With the end of Apartheid, the ANC became the leading political party in South Africa, but many claim that it moved away from its original ideas.