Aerobatic maneuvers are flight paths putting aircraft in unusual attitudes, in air shows, dog fights or competition aerobatics. A dogfight or dog fight is Aerial combat between Fighter aircraft. Competition aerobatics is an air sport in which judges rate the skill of pilots performing aerobatic flying Aerobatics can be performed by a single aircraft or in formation with several others. Aerobatics is the demonstration of flying maneuvers for Training, Recreation or Entertainment. Nearly all aircraft are capable of performing aerobatics maneuvers of some kind, although it may not be legal to do so in certain aircraft.
Aerobatics consist of five basic maneuvers: Lines (both horizontal and vertical), Loops, Rolls, Spins, and Hammerheads. Most aerobatic figures are composites of these basic maneuvers with rolls superimposed.
Most of these can be entered either erect or inverted, flown backwards or have extra rolls added.
Where appropriate, the Aresti Catalog symbols have been included. The Aresti Catalog is the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale standards document outlining the Aerobatic maneuvers permitted in aerobatic competition Not all the figures are competition figures, and so some do not have diagrams to accompany the description. Competition aerobatics is an air sport in which judges rate the skill of pilots performing aerobatic flying
Reading the diagrams, a figure is flown from end with the solid circle to the end with the line. Inverted flight (negative g) is depicted by dashed red lines. g-force (also G-force, g-load) is a measurement of an object's Acceleration expressed in g s
|Figure Name||Description||Aresti Symbol|
|Chandelle, Wing-over||Consists of a maximum climb, maximum bank combination to obtain the greatest altitude gain for a given airspeed and at the same time making a 180° course reversal. The Aresti Catalog is the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale standards document outlining the Aerobatic maneuvers permitted in aerobatic competition (Low, positive g maneuver can be performed in all aircraft. g-force (also G-force, g-load) is a measurement of an object's Acceleration expressed in g s )||(Not a competition figure. )|
|Cuban Eight||5/8s of a loop to the 45 degree line, 1/2 roll, 5/8s of a loop to the 45 degree line, 1/2 roll, 3/8s of a loop to level flight. (Half of the Cuban Eight is called a "half Cuban Eight", and the figure can be flown backwards, known as a "Reverse Cuban Eight")|
|Half Cuban Eight||From level flight, 5/8s loop to the inverted 45° line, 1/2 roll to erect down 45° line, pull to level flight.|
|Reverse Half Cuban Eight||From level flight pull to the 45° up line, 1/2 roll to inverted 45° up line, then 5/8s of a loop to level flight.|
|Hammerhead; Stall Turn|
|Hammerhead; Stall Turn||1/4 loop (pull or push) to vertical, as momentum/airspeed decreases, rudder is applied and the aircraft rotates around its yaw axis, the nose falls through the horizon and points towards the ground, a momentary pause is made to draw the vertical down line, and 1/4 loop to level flight. The yaw angle is the angle between a vehicle's heading and a reference heading (normally true or magnetic North) This figure is sometimes called a stall turn which is a misnomer because the aircraft never actually stalls. The manoeuvre is performed when the aeroplane decelerates through 20 - 30kts (more or less, depending on the aeroplane flown) of airspeed. The cartwheel portion of the hammerhead is performed with full rudder and full opposite aileron. Gyroscopic forces from the propeller during the rapid rate of yaw will produce a pitching and rolling moment and a degree of forward stick will be required to keep the aeroplane from coming off-line over the top. Flight dynamics is the science of air and space vehicle orientation and control in three dimensions The yaw is stopped with opposite rudder while the ailerons and elevator remain in position, then once the yaw is stopped and the aeroplane is pointed down vertically, all controls are returned to neutral together. Although they can be flown left or right in any aeroplane with the proper technique, a hammerhead is best flown to the left with a clockwise rotating prop, and to the right with an anticlockwise rotating prop (as in a Yakovlev type), due to propeller torque/gyroscopic effects.|
|Immelmann; Roll-off-the-top; Split S|
|Immelmann; Immelmann turn; Roll-off-the-top; half loop, half roll||1/2 looping up followed by half a roll. } Max Immelmann ( September 21, 1890 – June 18, 1916) was a German World War I Flying ace. } Max Immelmann ( September 21, 1890 – June 18, 1916) was a German World War I Flying ace. The Immelmann turn refers to two quite different Aircraft maneuvers There should be no pause between the end of the looping section and the start of the roll to erect flight.|
|Split S||Essentially an Immelmann in reverse. The Split S is an air combat maneuver mostly used to disengage from combat Half roll (from erect to inverted) followed by positive pitch to give a half loop. Flight dynamics is the science of air and space vehicle orientation and control in three dimensions Converts altitude to airspeed, and reverses direction.|
|Vertical up||Fly the aircraft so that the fuselage is perpendicular to the ground (along the wings' Zero lift axis. When symmetric Aerofoils are moving parallel to the chord line of the aerofoil zero lift is generated ) The flight path is not judged, and therefore the aircraft may drift downwind during a vertical maneuver.|
|45° up line||The object is for the airplane flight path to be 45° from horizontal, as viewed by a ground observer. The actual angle flown when viewed by the pilot would differ depending on whether the figure is flown into or with the wind, and wind strength.|
|Inside loop||A vertical circle entered from straight and erect level flight. In Astronomy, Geography, Geometry and related sciences and contexts a plane is said to be horizontal at a given point if it is locally A positive pitching movement is used at all points in the loop to draw the circle, so that the aeroplane canopy is pointing inwards. Flight dynamics is the science of air and space vehicle orientation and control in three dimensions Both the inside and outside loop are sometimes casually referred to as a 'loop the loop'.|
|Outside loop||A vertical circle entered from straight and erect level flight, canopy pointing out of the loop. In Astronomy, Geography, Geometry and related sciences and contexts a plane is said to be horizontal at a given point if it is locally Loop can be above or below the straight and level entry altitude, from erect or inverted attitude. (Draws extreme negative G)|
|English bunt||Half an outside loop starting from upright, straight and erect level flight. g-force (also G-force, g-load) is a measurement of an object's Acceleration expressed in g s In Astronomy, Geography, Geometry and related sciences and contexts a plane is said to be horizontal at a given point if it is locally (The pilot pushes the stick forward and draws a half circle in the sky from the top down. )|
|Erect spin; Inverted spin; Flat spin||A family of auto-rotational maneuvers, consisting of normal or "flat" spins, either upright or inverted. In aviation a spin is an aggravated stall resulting in rotation about the center of gravity wherein the aircraft follows a downward corkscrew path Two components must exist to spin an aircraft: 1) critical angle of attack (COA), which means that the aircraft is stalled, and 2) yaw. Angle of attack ( AOA, \alpha Greek letter alpha) is a term used in Aerodynamics to describe the Angle between the The yaw angle is the angle between a vehicle's heading and a reference heading (normally true or magnetic North)|
|Tailslide||1/4 looping up, straight vertical (full power) until the aircraft loses momentum. The Tailslide is an Aerobatic maneuver that starts from Level flight with a 1/4 Loop up into a straight vertical climb (at full power until the Aircraft The aircraft falls backwards, tail first, until the nose drops through the horizon to a vertical down position. 1/4 loop (push or pull) to recovers to level flight.|
|Snap Roll; Flick roll; Flick|
|Snap Roll; Flick roll; Flick||A family of rapid autorotational or "horizontal spins," not unlike spins. Rotation is induced by a rapid pitch input followed by rapid yaw input, thus stalling one wing further than the other. The yaw angle is the angle between a vehicle's heading and a reference heading (normally true or magnetic North) This imbalance in lift causes the high speed roll.|