An advocate is one who speaks on behalf of another person, especially in a legal context. It is used primarily in reference to the system of Scots law, Anglo-Dutch law and Israeli law. Scots law is a unique legal system with an ancient basis in Roman law. The Law of South Africa has a 'hybrid' or 'mixed' legal system, made of the interweaving of a number of distinct legal traditions a civil law system inherited from its Dutch Law of Israel combines Common law and civil law. Sources of Israeli law Israeli law draws on the following sources The Mecelle Implicit in the concept is the notion that the represented lacks the knowledge, skill, ability, or standing to speak for themselves. The broad equivalent in many English law-based jurisdictions is "barrister". English law is the legal system of England and Wales, and is the basis of Common law legal systems used in most Commonwealth countriesand the A barrister is a Lawyer found in many Common law Jurisdictions that employ a split profession (as opposed to a Fused profession) in relation
Advocates, members of the Faculty of Advocates, are counsel who are entitled to present cases in the supreme courts of Scotland: the Court of Session and High Court of Justiciary. The Faculty of Advocates is an independent body of Lawyers who have been admitted to practise as Advocates before the Courts of Scotland, especially the A counsel or a counsellor gives advice more particularly in legal matters Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. The Court of Session is the supreme civil court of Scotland. It is both a Court of first instance and a court of Appeal and sits exclusively The High Court of Justiciary is the supreme criminal court of Scotland.
Advocates are regulated by the Faculty of Advocates in Edinburgh. The Faculty of Advocates is an independent body of Lawyers who have been admitted to practise as Advocates before the Courts of Scotland, especially the The Faculty of Advocates is an independent body of Lawyers who have been admitted to practise as Advocates before the Courts of Scotland, especially the Edinburgh ( ˈɛdɪnb(ərə Dùn Èideann) is the Capital of Scotland and is its second largest city after Glasgow. The Faculty of Advocates has about 750 members, of whom about 460 are in private practice. About 75 are Queen's Counsel. Queen's Counsel ( postnominal QC) &ndash known as King's Counsel ( KC) during the reign of a male sovereign  &ndash are The Faculty is headed by the Dean of the Faculty who, along with the Vice-Dean, Treasurer, Clerk are elected annually by secret ballot. In Academic administration, a dean is a person with significant authority over a specific academic unit or over a specific area of concern or both In many Governments a treasurer is the person responsible for running the Treasury. Clerk, the vocational title commonly refers to a White-collar worker who conducts general office or in some instances sales tasks The secret ballot is a voting method in which a Voter 's choices are confidential
The Faculty has a service company, Faculty Services Ltd, to which almost all advocates belong and which organises the stables and fee collection. This gives a guarantee to all newly-called advocates of a place. Until the end of 2007 there was an agreement with the Law Society of Scotland, which is the professional body for Scottish solicitors, as to the payment of fees, but this has now been abrogated by the Law Society. The Law Society of Scotland is the Professional governing body for Scottish Solicitors based in Edinburgh. A "solicitor" is a term used in many Common law jurisdictions for a lawyer who offers legal services outside of the courts It remains the case that advocates are not permitted to sue for their fees, as they have no contractual relationship with their instructing solicitor or with the client . In law a lawsuit is a civil action brought before a Court in which the party commencing the action the Plaintiff, seeks a legal or equitable remedy Their fees are honoraria. An honorarium is an Ex gratia payment made to a person for their services in a volunteer capacity or for services for which fees are not traditionally required
Advocates wear wigs, white bow-ties (or falls in the case of senior counsel), and gowns as dress in court. sd
Advocates do not operate in chambers; they are entirely independent, although organised in eleven 'stables' for administrative purposes, and work out of the Advocates Library in Parliament House where the Court of Session is situated, in a similar way to barristers in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. The Advocates' Library is a Law library belonging to the Faculty of Advocates in Edinburgh, founded in 1682 Parliament House in Edinburgh, Scotland, was home to the pre-1707 Parliament of Scotland, and now houses the Supreme Courts of Scotland. The Court of Session is the supreme civil court of Scotland. It is both a Court of first instance and a court of Appeal and sits exclusively Ireland ( Irish: Éire, ˈeːrʲə is a country in north-western Europe. Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a Country within the United Kingdom, lying in the northeast of The High Court of Justiciary, where advocates plead criminal cases, is situated across the Royal Mile from Parliament House. The High Court of Justiciary is the supreme criminal court of Scotland. The Royal Mile is the popular name for the succession of streets which form the main thoroughfare of Edinburgh's Old Town.
Advocates do not act directly for members of the public, taking instructions from a solicitor. Since October 2006, however, direct access by others has been liberalised, and advocates can now accept instructions directly from an individual or organisation in four main categories - legal professionals, other professionals, public authorities and a wide range of other individuals and bodies. The list includes lawyers from outside Scotland, voluntary organisations, any person or body subject to complaints by the Scottish Public Services Ombudsman, any public authority under EU law, recognised charities and voluntary organisations, public limited companies regulated by the London Stock Exchange and anyone acting in a governmental, judicial or legislative capacity .
The process of becoming an advocate is referred to as devilling. Devilling is the period of training or Pupillage undertaken by a person wishing to become an Advocate in Scotland. All Intrants will hold an LL. B. (Bachelor of Laws) and the Diploma in Legal Practice qualifying them as solicitors or be members of the Bar in another common law jurisdiction. The Bachelor of Laws (abbreviated LLB, LLB or rarely LlB) is an undergraduate or bachelor degree in law offered in most Common law A bar association is a Professional body of Lawyers Some bar associations are responsible for the regulation of the legal profession in their Jurisdiction Common law refers to law and the corresponding legal system developed through decisions of courts and similar tribunals rather than through legislative statutes or executive
Devilling, as the period of pupillage or training to become an advocate is generally known, lasts between eight and nine months, and comprises a mix of skills training courses and time spent working with a devilmaster. Devilling is the period of training or Pupillage undertaken by a person wishing to become an Advocate in Scotland. A pupillage, in England and Wales, Northern Ireland and Ireland, is the Barrister 's equivalent of the Training contract Devilling is the period of training or Pupillage undertaken by a person wishing to become an Advocate in Scotland. The compulsory skills training courses, are spread across the devilling period and last for about ten weeks in total. For the balance of the period of devilling, devils work closely with their devilmasters.
All devils have a principal devilmaster who is a practising member of the junior bar of at least seven years standing, and working primarily in civil practice. Civil law, as opposed to Criminal law, refers to that branch of Law dealing with disputes between Individuals and/or Organizations, in which Devils also spend part of the time with another devilmaster practising in the criminal courts, and many devils spend a short period of time with a third devilmaster working in a different aspect of civil work from their principal devilmaster. Criminal justice is the system of practices and organizations used by national and local governments directed at maintaining Social control, deterring All devils and devilmasters are issued the current edition of the Faculty's Devil's Handbook.
In order to take a devil, a devilmaster must be approved by the Dean of Faculty. The Clerk of Faculty maintains a list of approved devilmasters, who may be contacted by email or via the Clerk's office.
Devils are expected to attend court with their devilmasters, and to attend consultations with solicitors instructing their devilmaster and with the solicitors' clients. A devil will also discuss the preparation and presentation of the cases in which their devilmaster is involved and will be required to draft written pleadings and opinions.
During the period of devilling, devils also carry out work for the Free Representation Unit. This is part of the Faculty's commitment to providing access to justice for everyone. The Free Representation Unit enables devils to provide advice and representation to clients of Citizens Advice Bureau from across Scotland.
At the end of the devilling period, a devil's admission to the Faculty is dependent on certification by the principal devilmaster that the devil is a fit and proper person to be an advocate, and that the devil has been involved in a wide range of work in the course of devilling. A devil's competence in a number of aspects of written and oral advocacy is assessed during devilling, and if a devil is assessed as not to be competent, they will not be admitted to the Faculty. Further details of this process can be found in the assessment section.
In recent years, more advocates have come to the Scottish Bar after some time as solicitors, but it is possible to qualify with a law degree, after a year's traineeship in a solicitor's office and almost a year as a 'devil', or apprentice advocate. There are exceptions for lawyers who are qualified in other European jurisdictions, but all must take the training course as devils.
Until 2007, a number of young European lawyers were given a placement with advocates under the European Young Lawyers Scheme organised by the British Council. The British Council is a Public Body of the United Kingdom Government which specialises in educational and development opportunities They are known as 'Eurodevils' in distinction to the Scottish 'devils'. This scheme has now been withdrawn by the British Council.
Lawyers qualified in other EU states (but not England and Wales) may have limited rights of audience in the Scottish supreme courts if they appear with an advocate, and a few solicitors known as 'solicitor-advocates' have rights of audience, but for practical purposes advocates have almost exclusive rights of audience.
Some well known Scottish advocates in the past were Sir Walter Scott, Alexander Boswell, James Boswell, David Dalrymple, Robert Louis Stevenson, Henry Home and Alexander Wedderburn. Sir Walter Scott 1st Baronet (15 August 1771 &ndash 21 September 1832 was a prolific Scottish Historical novelist and Poet popular throughout Alexander Boswell 8th Lord of Auchinleck (1706-1782 was a Judge of the Supreme courts of Scotland. James Boswell 9th Laird of Auchinleck ( October 29, 1740 - May 19, 1795) was a lawyer diarist and Author born in Edinburgh Sir David Dalrymple 3rd Baronet Lord Hailes ( October 28 1726 &ndash November 29 1792) was a Scottish Advocate, Robert Louis Balfour Stevenson (13 November 1850–3 December 1894 was a Scottish novelist poet and travel writer, and a representative of Neo-romanticism in Henry Home Lord Kames (1696 December 27, 1782) was a Scottish Philosopher of the 18th century Alexander Wedderburn 1st Earl of Rosslyn ( 13 February 1733 &ndash 2 January 1805) Lord Chancellor of Great Britain, Others, at the present day , include Alastair Darling, Menzies Campbell, Malcolm Rifkind, Desmond Browne, Donald Findlay,and Ian Hamilton. Alistair Maclean Darling (born 28 November 1953 is a British Politician and Chancellor of the Exchequer since 28 June 2007 Sir Walter Menzies Campbell CBE QC (born 22 May 1941) commonly known as Ming Campbell, is a British Politician Sir Malcolm Leslie Rifkind KCMG QC (born 21 June 1946 is a British Conservative Politician and Member of Parliament for The Rt Hon Desmond Henry Browne MP (born 22 March 1952 commonly known as Des Browne, is a Scottish Labour Party Politician. Donald Findlay QC, (born March 17 1951) is a well-known senior Advocate and Queen's Counsel in Scotland. Ian Hamilton QC (born 1925 is a lawyer and Scottish Nationalist.
Advocates, properly called Advocates of the Royal Court, are the only lawyers with rights of audience in the Channel Islands. The Channel Islands ( Norman: Îles d'la Manche, French: Îles Anglo-Normandes or Îles de la Manche) are a group of Islands To become an advocate, one has to possess a valid law degree or diploma, plus a qualification as an English barrister or solicitor, or a French avocat. A barrister is a Lawyer found in many Common law Jurisdictions that employ a split profession (as opposed to a Fused profession) in relation A "solicitor" is a term used in many Common law jurisdictions for a lawyer who offers legal services outside of the courts They must then study for the Guernsey or Jersey Bar. In Guernsey, three months of study of Norman law at the Université de Caen is required; this is no longer the case in Jersey. The Normans were the people who gave their names to Normandy, a region in northern France. The Université de Caen Basse-Normandie or Caen University is a University in Caen, France. Guernsey Advocates dress in the same way as barristers, but substitute a black biretta-like toque for a wig, while those in Jersey go bare-headed. The biretta is a square Cap with three or four ridges or peaks sometimes surmounted by a tuft traditionally worn by Roman Catholic clergy and some Anglican A toque (toʊk is a type of Hat with a narrow brim or no brim at all Advocates are entitled to prefix their names with 'Advocate'; e. g. Mr Tostevin is called to the Guernsey Bar and is henceforth known as Advocate Tostevin.
In England and Wales Advocates were counsel in the ecclesiastical courts. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland An ecclesiastical court (also called "Court Christian" or "Court Spiritual" is any of certain Courts having Jurisdiction mainly in spiritual or
In India, the law relating to the Advocates is the Advocates Act, 1961 which is a law passed by the Parliament and is administered and enforced by the Bar Council of India. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country The Parliament of India (or Sansad) is the federal and supreme Legislative body of India. The Bar Council of India is an autonomous body in India which governs the legal/law institutions in India Under the Act, the Bar Council of India is the supreme regulatory body to regulate the legal profession in India and also to ensure the compliance of the laws and maintenance of professional standards by the legal profession in the country. The Bar Council of India is an autonomous body in India which governs the legal/law institutions in India For this purpose, the Bar Council of India is authorized to pass regulations and make orders in individual cases and also generally. The Bar Council of India is an autonomous body in India which governs the legal/law institutions in India This article is for the legal term For regulation of genes see Regulation of gene expression.
Also, under the Act the different structure has been provided. Each State has a Bar Council of its own whose function is to enroll the Advocates willing to practice predominately within the territorial confines of that State and to perform the functions of the Bar Council of India within the territory assigned to them. India is a union of states comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. Therefore each law degree holder has to get enrolled with a (and only one) State Bar Council in order to be authorized to practice in India. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country However enrollment with any State Bar Council does not restrict the Advocate from appearing before any court in India even though it is beyond the territorial jurisdiction of the State Bar Council with which he is enrolled.
The advantage with having the State Bar Councils is that the work load of the Bar Council of India can be divided into these various State Bar Councils and also that matters can be dealt with locally and in an expedited manner. However for all practical and legal purposes, the Bar Council of India retains with it the final power to take decisions in any and all matters related to the legal profession on the whole or with respect to any Advocate individually, as so provided under the Advocates Act, 1961.
The process for being entitled to practices in India is two fold. First, the applicant must be a holder of a law degree from a recognized institution in India and second, must pass the enrollment qualifications of the State Bar Council where he/she seeks to get enrolled with. A Law degree is the degree conferred on someone who successfully completes studies in law For this purpose, the Bar Council of India has an internal Committee whose function is to supervise and examine the various institutions conferring law degrees and to grant recognition to these institutions ones they meet the required standards. In this manner the Bar Council of India also ensures the standard of education required to be meted for practicing in India are met with. The Bar Council of India is an autonomous body in India which governs the legal/law institutions in India India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country As regards the qualification for enrollment with the State Bar Council, while the actual formalities may vary from one State to another, yet predominately they ensure that the application has not been a bankrupt /criminal and is generally fit to practice before courts of India. India is a union of states comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. Bankruptcy is a legally declared inability or impairment of ability of an individual or organization to pay their Creditors Creditors may file a bankruptcy petition against In the sociological field, crime is the breach of a rule or Law for which some governing authority or force may ultimately prescribe a Punishment A court is a forum used by a power base to adjudicate disputes and dispense civil, labour administrative and criminal Justice under its India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country
Enrollment with a Bar Council also means that the law degree holder is recognized as an Advocate and is required to maintain a standards of conduct and professional demeanor at all times, both on and off the profession. The Bar Council of India also prescribes "Rules of Conduct" to be observed the Advocates in the courts, while interacting with clients and even otherwise. A court is a forum used by a power base to adjudicate disputes and dispense civil, labour administrative and criminal Justice under its
All Advocates in India are at the same level and are recognized as such. Any distinction, if any, is made only on the basis of seniority, which implies the length of practice at the Bar. A bar association is a Professional body of Lawyers Some bar associations are responsible for the regulation of the legal profession in their Jurisdiction As a recognition of law practice and specialization in an area of law, there is a concept of conferral of Senior Advocate status. Law is a system of rules enforced through a set of Institutions used as an instrument to underpin civil obedience politics economics and society An Advocate may be recognized by the District and Sessions Court (in case of a trial court Advocate) or by the Judges of the High Court (in case of a Advocate practicing before that High Court) or by the Supreme Court (in case of the Advocate practicing before the Supreme Court). India 's judicial system is made up of the Supreme Court of India at the apex of the hierarchy for the entire country and twenty-one High Courts at the The Supreme Court of India is the highest court of the land as established by Part V Chapter IV of the Constitution of India. While the conferral of Senior Advocate status not only implies distinction and fame of the Advocate, it also requires the Senior Advocate to follow higher standards of conduct and some distinct rules. Also, a Senior Advocate is not allowed to interact directly with the clients. He can only take briefs from other Advocates and argue on the basis of the details given by them. A brief (Latin " brevis " short or factum (Latin for "act" or "deed" is a written legal document used in various legal
Further, under the Constitutional structure, there is a provision for elevation of Advocates as judges of High Courts and Supreme Court. The Constitution of India ( Hindi: भारतीय़ संविधान see names in other Indian languages) is the supreme law of India. India 's judicial system is made up of the Supreme Court of India at the apex of the hierarchy for the entire country and twenty-one High Courts at the The Supreme Court of India is the highest court of the land as established by Part V Chapter IV of the Constitution of India. The only requirement is the Advocate must have a ten years standing before the High Court(/s) or before the Supreme Court to be eligible for such. (Article 217 and 124 of the Constitution of India for High Courts and Supreme Court respectively)
Four levels of Advocate exist in Pakistan:
The lowest level is the Advocate, who is Eligible to practice in the district courts or lower. Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and One can qualify as an Advocate after completion of a law degree and six months pupillage under an Advocate in his/her chambers.
Advocate High Court is the second level, and is eligible to practice in the High Courts of Pakistan and below. A license is obtained after successful completion of two year's practice in the lower courts by application which is reviewed by a body of High Court Judges headed by the respective provincial Chief Justices and the relevant provincial Bar Council. Most applications after successful completion of the requirement are accepted.
Advocate Supreme Court is the third level. After successful completion of ten years practice at the High Courts by application to the Pakistan Bar Council and reviewed by a panel of Supreme Court Judges headed by the Chief Justice of Pakistan. Pakistan Bar Council was established by the Parliament in 1973 under The Legal Practitioners and Bar Councils Act. (Before 1985 the requirement was successful completion of five years practice in the High Courts of Pakistan. ) Over fifty percent of the number of applications after successful completion of the requirement are accepted. An unsuccessful application in one year does not bar the candidate from re-applying in the next judicial year.
The highest level is the Senior Advocate Supreme Court. It is Pakistan's title equivalent to Queen's Counsel in the United Kingdom. Queen's Counsel ( postnominal QC) &ndash known as King's Counsel ( KC) during the reign of a male sovereign  &ndash are The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located
After at least fifteen years practice by invitation by or an application to a panel of Supreme Court Judges headed by the Chief Justice of Pakistan. Very few applications are accepted and even fewer invitations are made. Attorney Generals are invited by the Supreme Court on appointment to the office. So are some notable High Court judges who upon retirement choose to practice in the Supreme Court where they are still eligible to do so.