Abitur (from Latin abire = go away, go off) is a designation used in Germany and Finland for final exams that young adults (aged 18, 19 or 20) take at the end of their secondary education, usually after 12 or 13 years of schooling. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe. Australia See also Education The official term in Germany for this certificate of education is Allgemeine Hochschulreife; the contraction Abi is common in colloquial usage. The Zeugnis der allgemeinen Hochschulreife (often referred to as Abiturzeugnis), issued after candidates have passed their final exams, is the document which contains their grades and which formally enables them to attend university. A university is an institution of Higher education and Research, which grants Academic degrees in a variety of subjects This means it includes the functions of a school leaving (high school graduation) certificate and a university entrance exam. In 2005, a total of 400,000 students passed the Abitur exam in Germany.
Even though the Abitur is often compared to a high school diploma in the United States, it is closer to the associate degree of a US college, as it in many states requires 13 years of study and enables the recipient to earn a Bachelor's degree in three years. High school is the name used in some parts of the world (in particular Scotland, North America and Australia) to describe an institution Germany (Deutschland is a Federal Republic consisting of sixteen States, known in German as Länder (singular A bachelor's degree is usually an Undergraduate Academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts for three four or in some cases and However, the academic level of the Abitur is more comparable to the International Baccalaureate and Advanced Placement tests — indeed, the study requirements for the International Baccalaureate differ little from the Finnish exam requirements. The International Baccalaureate (IB Diploma Programme (DP is an Educational programme examined in one of three languages ( English, French or Spanish The Advanced Placement Program is a program that offers college level courses at High schools across the United States and Canada. It is the only school-leaving certificate in all states of Germany that allows the graduate (or Abiturient) to directly commence studies at the university. A university is an institution of Higher education and Research, which grants Academic degrees in a variety of subjects The other school leaving certificates, the Hauptschulabschluss and the Realschulabschluss, do not allow their holders to matriculate at a university. Those granted certificates of "Hauptschulabschluss" or "Realschulabschluss" can gain a specialized "Fachabitur" or an Abitur if they graduate from a "Berufsschule" and then attend "Berufsoberschule". Berufsoberschule (Upper Vocational School is an optional part of the German education system and is an additional way to be allowed at university for students who didn't get an
The importance of the Abitur has grown beyond admission to the university, however, in that it has increasingly become a prerequisite to start an apprenticeship in some professions (e. g. banking). Therefore, career opportunities for Hauptschule or Realschule graduates who do not have the Abitur have almost universally seen a downturn in recent years. A "Hauptschule" (general school is a Secondary school in Germany and Austria, starting after 4 years of Elementary schooling Any student The Realschule is a type of Secondary school in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and Liechtenstein. More than just being a leaving certificate, the Abitur is widely regarded as a matter of personal prestige as well. According to the Statistisches Bundesamt in 2003/2004 about 23% of all students leaving school graduated with an Abitur (Fachabitur [1. 2%], Realschulabschluss [42. 6%], Hauptschulabschluss [25. 0%], without any degree [8. 3%])
The official term for Abitur in Germany is Zeugnis der allgemeinen Hochschulreife (often translated as General Qualification for University Entrance or Certificate for Overall Maturity for Higher Education). The equivalent exam in Austria, Poland and other countries of continental Europe is the Matura; while in England, Wales, Northern Ireland, Cyprus, Hong Kong, Singapore, South Africa, Malta, and the West Indies, it is A-levels; and in Scotland, it is Advanced Higher Grade. Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the Continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European Matura (Matur Maturita Maturità Maturität матура is the word commonly used in Austria, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria The A-level, short for Advanced Level, is a General Certificate of Education qualification in England, Northern Ireland and Wales, Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. The Advanced Higher ( Scottish Gaelic: An Àrd Ìre Adhartach) is an optional qualification which forms part of the Scottish Secondary education
In colloquial usage the term Abitur often refers to the final exams only. These generally consist of sets of written examinations and oral examinations. The subjects covered in these examinations vary according to the specialisation chosen by the pupil during the last 2-3 years (Oberstufe) at the Gymnasium. A gymnasium (pronounced with ɡ- in several languages is a type of school providing Secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English grammar The pupil's choice may be limited further, however, depending on the specific laws on higher education in a federal state (Bundesland), which has some independence in the design of its educational systems with respect to federal laws. Germany (Deutschland is a Federal Republic consisting of sixteen States, known in German as Länder (singular So Abitur in every state may differ. However most of them have centralised exams now.
The marks obtained in these exams are combined with marks won during the last 2-3 years to a summary mark, like the US GPA. The following is a summary of the academic grading systems in North America. This, in turn, is important to be admitted to a German university for some fields of study, in particular medical schools ("Numerus clausus"). Numerus clausus ("closed number" in Latin) is one of many methods used to limit the number of Students who may study at a University
The final Abitur grade is a figure ranging from 1. 0 (best) to 4. 0. However, during their time of studies and at the end exams students receive only grades on a scale of 15 (best) and 00 points. These points are weighted and then added up and converted to the final grade. If a student receives 14 points in all his/her courses and exams he will get a final grade of 1. 0.
The composite score of the Abitur is between 280 and 840, though both borders are rarely awarded. Students with a score below 280 fail and will not receive the Abitur. The student has the possibility to omit courses (if he/she has taken more than necessary) from his/her composite score. At the moment, 768 points are equivalent to 1. 0 - the highest grade achievable in the lessons.
Up until the 18th century, every German university had its own entrance examination. In 1788 Prussia introduced the Abiturreglement, a law that—for the first time within Germany—established the Abitur as an official qualification. Year 1788 ( MDCCLXXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap Prussia ( Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Prūsija Prūsija Prusy Old Prussian: Prūsa) was most recently a historic state It was later also established in the other German states. In 1834 it became the only university entrance exam in Prussia, and it remained so in all states of Germany up until 2004. Year 1834 ( MDCCCXXXIV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Germany (Deutschland is a Federal Republic consisting of sixteen States, known in German as Länder (singular "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " Since then the German state of Hesse allows also students with the Fachhochschulreife (see below) to study at the universities within the state. Hesse (Hessen is a state of Germany with an area
In the German language the European Baccalaureate is called europäisches Abitur, and the International Baccalaureate is called internationales Abitur, both not to be confused with the German Abitur. The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. The European Baccalaureate (" Bac " is awarded to students who successfully managed to complete a European School. The International Baccalaureate (IB Diploma Programme (DP is an Educational programme examined in one of three languages ( English, French or Spanish
Fachabitur was used up until the 1970s in all of Germany for a variation of the Abitur. The official term for this German qualification is fachgebundene Hochschulreife. This qualification includes only one foreign language (in most cases English). The Abitur, in contrast, includes two foreign languages. This school leaving certificate also allows the graduate to start studying at a university. However, he is limited to a specified range of majors. The range of majors depends on the specific subjects covered in his Abitur examinations. But the graduate is allowed to study all majors at a Fachhochschule (University of Applied Sciences, in some ways comparable to polytechnics). A Fachhochschule (plural Fachhochschulen) or University of Applied Sciences is a German type of University, sometimes specialized in certain topical areas Institute of technology, and polytechnic, are designations employed in a wide range of learning institutions awarding different types of degrees and operating often at variable Today this school leaving certificate is called fachgebundenes Abitur.
Now the term Fachabitur is used in most parts of Germany for the Fachhochschulreife. This school leaving certificate was introduced in West Germany in the 1970s together with the Fachhochschulen. West Germany ( Inf German: Westdeutschland or West-Deutschland) was the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany ( It enables the graduate to start studying at a Fachhochschule, and in Hesse also at a university within the state. In the Gymnasiums of some states it is reached in the year before the Abitur is reached. A gymnasium (pronounced with ɡ- in several languages is a type of school providing Secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English grammar However, the normal way to receive the Fachhochschulreife is the graduation from a German Fachoberschule, a vocational high school also introduced in the 1970s.
The term Notabitur is used for a qualification which existed only during World War I and World War II. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including It was granted to male German Students who freely enlisted for military service before graduation. The Notabitur during WWI included an examination, roughly equivalent to the Abitur exam. The WWII Notabitur, in contrast, was granted without any examinations. After the war this was a major disadvantage for Germans with this qualification since it was, unlike its WWI counterpart, generally not recognised in West Germany and never recognised in East Germany. West Germany ( Inf German: Westdeutschland or West-Deutschland) was the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany ( The German Democratic Republic ( GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik DDR; commonly known in English as East Germany) was a Socialist state
A similar test has also existed in Finland since the mid-19th century. In various European countries student caps of different types are or have been worn either as a marker of a common identity as is the case in the Nordic countries Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe. The test is called Ylioppilastutkinto in Finnish and Studentexamen in Swedish. Finnish ( or suomen kieli) is the language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland (92% As of 2006) and by ethnic Finns outside Swedish ( is a North Germanic language spoken by more than nine million people predominantly in Sweden and parts of Finland, especially along the The official English language translation is Matriculation Examination. Since 1919, the test has been arranged by a national body, the Matriculation Examination Board. Year 1919 ( MCMXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Before that, the administration of the test was the responsibility of University of Helsinki. The University of Helsinki (Helsingin yliopisto Helsingfors universitet is a University located in Helsinki, Finland since 1829 but founded
Successful completion formerly legally entitled one to enrol as a university student (hence "matriculation"). Although the legal requirement has been lifted, matriculation without the doing the test is still an exception. The universities are now free to arrange their own entrance examinations in addition to considering scores from the Matriculation Examination. Thus, universities accept students based both on entrance exam points, matriculation exam points, and also by a combined score from the two. Matriculation entitles one to wear the student cap. In various European countries student caps of different types are or have been worn either as a marker of a common identity as is the case in the Nordic countries
Each examinee is required to participate in at least four tests in order to matriculate. As of 2005 the only mandatory part of the test is that of Äidinkieli ("mother tongue"; Finnish for most students, Swedish or Sámi for some), including a composition test. Swedish ( is a North Germanic language spoken by more than nine million people predominantly in Sweden and parts of Finland, especially along the Sami or Saami is a general name for a group of Finnic languages spoken by the Sami people in parts of northern Finland, Norway The student then has to choose three other subjects from
The exam takes place at schools according to minute regulations laid out by the national board. Each exam takes six hours. After the exam, the teachers grade the papers and send the graded papers to the national board which then re-grades every paper. The grading of the exam may be appealed against. In this case, the board re-examines the grading. The result of the re-examination is final and cannot be appealed to any authority.
The score of each test varies with the subject. For example, the maximum score for the test in Finnish or Swedish as a first language is 114 points, in mathematics 66 points and in foreign languages 299 points. The tests are graded according to normal distribution into seven verbal grades with Latin names: Improbatur (I), Approbatur (A), Lubenter Approbatur (B) Cum Laude Approbatur (C), Magna Cum Laude Approbatur (M) Eximia Cum Laude Approbatur (E) and Laudatur (L), from bottom to top. The normal distribution, also called the Gaussian distribution, is an important family of Continuous probability distributions applicable in many fields Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Latin honors are Latin phrases used to indicate the level of academic distinction with which an Academic degree was earned In general, at least the grade A is required for the test to be passed. In every exam,
Traditionally, the test is taken in the spring, but it is also arranged every autumn and may be taken in up to three parts. Thus taking the matriculation exam may take up to one and half years. Usually, the last set of exams is taken at the end of the third year in upper secondary school. The exams take place in late March, but for the school-leavers, the school ends in mid-February, giving the students ample time to prepare for the test in solitary study. This occasion is celebrated by the traditional festivity of penkkarit. Penkkarit (more formally penkinpainajaiset, literally "the pressings of the bench" is a yearly tradition among Finnish Upper secondary school
If the student receives an improbatur in any of the obligatory exams, the whole exam is failed. However, a single failed obligatory exam may be compensated by good results from other exams. For this purpose, there is a compensation system where the total exam result of the student is calculated and it is compared to the result of the failed test. In order to get his/her diploma accepted, student must gather enough compensation points from all the other exams. Improbatur is divided to four classes (i+,i, i-,i=), each descriping the deepness of student's failure (i+ being the least bad) and each class has its own number of compensation points to be reached for acceptable result (12, 14, 16 and 18 respectively). Points from accepted exams are awarded as follows: L 7 points, E 6, M 5, C 4, B 3 and A 2.