Abba Arika (175–247) (Talmudic Aramaic: אבא אריכא) (born Abba bar Aybo) was a Jewish Talmudist who lived in Babylonia, known as an amora (commentator on the Oral Law) of the 3rd century who established at Sura the systematic study of the rabbinic traditions, which, using the Mishnah as text, led to the compilation of the Talmud. Zugot (תְּקוּפָת הַזּוּגוֹת ( (təqūphāth hazZūghôth) refers to the period during the time of the Second Temple (515 BCE - 70 CE in which word /š n/ and /t n/ --> Geonim ( Hebrew: גאונים also transliterated Gaonim) were the presidents of the two great rabbinical colleges of Sura Events By Place Roman Empire Marcus Aurelius suppresses a revolt of the legate Avidius Cassius in Syria Events By Place Roman Empire First of the Gothic invasions Philip the Arab marks the millennium of Rome by holding Jewish Babylonian Aramaic is the form of Middle Aramaic employed by Jewish writers in Babylonia between the 4th century and the 11th century CE PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ The Talmud ( Hebrew: he תַּלְמוּד is a record of Rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history Babylonia was an Amorite state in lower Mesopotamia (modern southern Iraq) with Babylon as its capital An oral law is a Code of conduct in use in a given Culture, Religion or community application by which a body of rules of human behaviour is transmitted The 3rd century is the period from 201 to 300 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. Sura was a city in the southern part of ancient Babylonia, located west of the Euphrates River. The Mishnah or Mishna (he משנה "repetition" from the verb shanah he שנה or "to study and review" is a major work of Rabbinic Judaism The Talmud ( Hebrew: he תַּלְמוּד is a record of Rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history With him began the long period of ascendancy of the great academies of Babylonia (Oesterley & Box 1920), around the year 220 CE. He is commonly known simply as Rav (or Rab, Hebrew: רב).
His surname, Arika (English, "Long"— that is, "Tall"; it occurs only once—Hullin 137b), he owed to his height, which, according to a reliable record, exceeded that of his contemporaries. Others, reading Areka, consider it an honorary title, "Lecturer" (Weiss, Dor, iii. 147; Jastrow, Dictionary under the word). In the traditional literature he is referred to almost exclusively as Rav the Master (both his contemporaries and posterity recognizing in him a master), just as his teacher, Judah I, was known simply as Rabbi. He is called Rabbi Abba only in the tannaitic literature (for instance, Tosefta, Beitzah 1:7), where a number of his sayings are preserved. The Mishnah or Mishna (he משנה "repetition" from the verb shanah he שנה or "to study and review" is a major work of Rabbinic Judaism He occupies a middle position between the Tannaim and the Amoraim, and is accorded the right, rarely conceded to one who is only an 'amora, of disputing the opinion of a tanna (Bava Batra 42a and elsewhere).
Rav was a descendant of a distinguished Babylonian family which claimed to trace its origin to Shimei, brother of King David (Sanhedrin 5a; Ketubot 62b). Shimei is the name of a number of persons referenced in the Hebrew Bible and Rabbinical literature David, Arabic: داوود or داود dawud, "beloved" was the second king of the united Kingdom of Israel according to the Hebrew Bible His father, Aibo, was a brother of Chiyya, who lived in Palestine, and was a highly esteemed scholar in the collegiate circle of the patriarch Judah I. Palestine is a name which has been widely used since Roman times to refer to the region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River. From his associations in the house of his uncle, and later as his uncle's disciple and as a member of the academy at Sepphoris, Rav acquired such an extraordinary knowledge of traditional lore as to make him its foremost exponent in his native land. Tzippori (ציפורי also known by the Greek Sepphoris, in Latin Dioceserea, and the Arabic Saffuriya (صفورية or Suffurriye While Judah I was still living, Rav, having been duly ordained as teacher—though not without certain restrictions (Sanhedrin 5a)—returned to Babylonia, where he at once began a career that was destined to mark an epoch in the development of Babylonian Judaism. Babylonia was an Amorite state in lower Mesopotamia (modern southern Iraq) with Babylon as its capital
In the annals of the Babylonian schools the year of his arrival is recorded as the starting-point in the chronology of the Talmudic age. It was the 530th year of the Seleucidan and the 219th year of the common era. The Seleucid Empire /sə'lusɪd/ ( 312 - 63 BC) was a Hellenistic empire i As the scene of his activity, Rav first chose Nehardea, where the exilarch appointed him agoranomos, or market-master, and Rabbi Shela made him lecturer (amora) of his college (Jerusalem Talmud Bava Batra v. Nehardea or Nehardeah was a City of Babylonia, situated at or near the junction of the Euphrates with the Nahr Malka (also known as Nâr Sharri Exilarch ( Aramaic: ריש גלותא Reish Galuta lit "Head of the Exile" ( Greek: Æchmalotarcha) refers to the leader of the Agoranomos (ἀγορανόμος plural agoranomoi, ἀγορανόμοι was an electable official position in the cities of Ancient Greece and Byzantine The Jerusalem Talmud or Talmud Yerushalmi (תַּלְמוּד יְרוּשָׁלְמִי often the Yerushalmi for short is a collection 15a; Yoma, 20b). Then he removed to Sura, on the Euphrates, where he established a school of his own, which soon became the intellectual center of the Babylonian Jews. Sura was a city in the southern part of ancient Babylonia, located west of the Euphrates River. The Euphrates ( ( Arabic: ar نهر الفرات; Turkish: tr Fırat Syriac: syr ܦܪܬ; Hebrew: he פרת As a renowned teacher of the Law and with hosts of disciples, who came from all sections of the Jewish world, Rav lived and worked in Sura until his death. Samuel, another disciple of Judah I, at the same time brought to the academy at Nehardea a high degree of prosperity; in fact, it was at the school of Rav that Jewish learning in Babylonia found its permanent home and center. Samuel of Nehardea or Samuel bar Abba ( Hebrew: שמואל) was a Jewish Talmudist who lived in Babylonia, known as an Rav's activity made Babylonia independent of Palestine, and gave it that predominant position which it was destined to occupy for several centuries.
The method of treatment of the traditional material to which the Talmud owes its origin was established in Babylonia by Rav. That method takes the Mishnah of Judah ha-Nasi as a text or foundation, adding to it the other tannaitic traditions, and deriving from all of them the theoretical explanations and practical applications of the religious Law. The legal and ritual opinions recorded in Rav's name and his disputes with Samuel constitute the main body of the Babylonian Talmud. The Talmud ( Hebrew: he תַּלְמוּד is a record of Rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history His numerous disciples—some of whom were very influential and who, for the most part, were also disciples of Samuel—amplified and, in their capacity as instructors and by their discussions, continued the work of Rav. In the Babylonian schools, Rav was rightly referred to as "our great master. " Rav also exercised a great influence for good upon the moral and religious conditions of his native land, not only indirectly through his disciples, but directly by reason of the strictness with which he repressed abuses in matters of marriage and divorce, and denounced ignorance and negligence in matters of ritual observance. NOTICE TO WOULD-BE ROMEOS ************** Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the termination of a Marriage.
Rav, says tradition, found an open, neglected field and fenced it in (Hullin 110a). Special attention was given by him to the liturgy of the synagogue. A liturgy is the customary public worship done by a specific religious group according to their particular traditions A synagogue (from Greek: grc συναγωγή transliterated synagogē, "assembly" he בית כנסת beit knesset, "house of He is reputed to be the author of one of the finest compositions in the Jewish prayerbook, the Musaf service of the New Year. A siddur ( Hebrew: סידור plural siddurim) is a Jewish Prayer book, containing a set order of daily prayers. Jewish services ( Hebrew: תפלה, tefillah; plural תפלות, tefillos or tefillot; Yinglish: davening Rosh Hashanah (ראש השנה literally "head of the year" Biblical: ˈɾoʃ haʃːɔˈnɔh Israeli haʃaˈna Yiddish: hɑˈʃɔnə is a Jewish In this noble prayer are evinced profound religious feeling and exalted thought, as well as ability to use the Hebrew language in a natural, expressive, and classical manner (Jerusalem Talmud Rosh Hashanah i. 57a). The many homiletic and ethical (haggadistic) sayings recorded of him show similar ability. Homiletics ( Gr homiletikos, from homilos, to assemble together in Theology the application of the general principles of Rhetoric Ethics is a major branch of Philosophy, encompassing right conduct and good life As a haggadist, Rav is surpassed by none of the Babylonian Amoraim. He is the only one of the Babylonian teachers whose haggadistic utterances approach in number and contents those of the Palestinian haggadists. The Jerusalem Talmud has preserved a large number of his halakic and aggadistic utterances; and the Palestinian Midrashim also contain many of his aggadot. The Jerusalem Talmud or Talmud Yerushalmi (תַּלְמוּד יְרוּשָׁלְמִי often the Yerushalmi for short is a collection Halakha ( הלכה; alternative transliterations include Halocho and Halacha) is the collective body of Jewish Religious law Aggadah ( Aramaic אגדה tales lore pl Aggadot or (Ashkenazi Aggados) refers to the homiletic and non-legalistic exegetical Midrash ( Hebrew: מדרש plural midrashim, lit "to repeat" is a Hebrew term referring to the not exact but comparative ( homiletic Rav delivered homiletic discourses, both in the Beth midrash (college) and in the synagogues. Beth Midrash ( Hebrew: בית מדרש; also Beis Medrash, Beit Midrash, pl He especially loved to treat in his homilies of the events and personages of Biblical history; and many beautiful and genuinely poetic embellishments of the Biblical record, which have become common possession of the aggadah, are his creations. Aggadah ( Aramaic אגדה tales lore pl Aggadot or (Ashkenazi Aggados) refers to the homiletic and non-legalistic exegetical His aggadah is particularly rich in thoughts concerning the moral life and the relations of human beings to one another. A few of these utterances may be quoted here: (Shabbat 10b)
Rav loved the Book of Ecclesiasticus (Sirach), and warned his disciple Hamnuna against unjustifiable asceticism by quoting advice contained therein—that, considering the transitoriness of human life (Eruvin 54a), one should not despise the good things of this world. Sirach, by Ben Sira, also known as The Wisdom of Jesus son of Sirach, The Wisdom of Ben Sira, or Ecclesiasticus To the celestial joys of the future he was accustomed to refer in the following poetic words: (Berakhot 17a)
Rav also devoted much attention to mystical and transcendental speculations which the rabbis connect with the Biblical account of creation (Genesis 1, Ma'aseh Bereshit), the vision of the mysterious chariot of God (Ezekiel 1, Ma'aseh Merkabah), and the Divine Name. Mysticism (from the Greek grc μυστικός mystikos, an initiate of a Mystery religion) is the pursuit of communion with identity In Religion, transcendence is a condition or state of being that surpasses physical existence and in one form is also independent of it Many of his important utterances testify to his tendency in this direction (Hagigah 12a, Kiddushin 71a).
Concerning the social position and the personal history of Rav we were not informed. That he was rich seems probable; for he appears to have occupied himself for a time with commerce and afterward with agriculture (Hullin 105a). That he was highly respected by the Gentiles as well as by the Jews of Babylonia is proved by the friendship which existed between him and the last Parthian king, Artaban (Avodah Zarah 10b). The term Gentile (from Latin, gentilis, meaning of or belonging to a clan or tribe refers to non- Israelite tribes or nations in the Bible. Parthia ( Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was an Iranian civilization situated in the northeastern part of modern Iran He was deeply affected by the death of Artaban (226) and the downfall of the Arsacid dynasty, and does not appear to have sought the friendship of Ardeshir, founder of the Sassanian dynasty, although Samuel of Nehardea probably did so. Ardeshīr, Ardashīr, or Ardashēr ( is Middle Persian for "whose reign is through ''arda'' (truth" and may refer The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty or Sassanian Dynasty (ساسانیان) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian empire Samuel of Nehardea or Samuel bar Abba ( Hebrew: שמואל) was a Jewish Talmudist who lived in Babylonia, known as an Rav became closely related, through the marriage of one of his daughters, to the family of the exilarch. Her sons, Mar Ukba and Nehemiah, were considered types of the highest aristocracy. Mar Ukba, an Exilarch at Baghdad in the first half of the Tenth century; the second exilarch to die in banishment Rav had many sons, several of whom are mentioned in the Talmud, the most distinguished being the eldest, Chiyya. The latter did not, however, succeed his father as head of the academy: this post fell to Rav's disciple Rav Huna. Rav Huna ( Hebrew: רב הונא) was a Jewish Talmudist who lived in Babylonia, known as an Amora of the second generation Two of his grandsons occupied in succession the office of exilarch (resh galuta) (Hullin 92a). Exilarch ( Aramaic: ריש גלותא Reish Galuta lit "Head of the Exile" ( Greek: Æchmalotarcha) refers to the leader of the
Rav died at an advanced age, deeply mourned by numerous disciples and the entire Babylonian Jewry, which he had raised from comparative insignificance to the leading position in Judaism (Shabbat 110a, Mo'ed Katan 24a).