|2003 European heat wave|
|Dates||June 2003 to August 2003|
|Areas affected||Mostly western Europe|
The 2003 European heat wave was one of the hottest summers on record in Europe. June 2003: January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - August 2003: January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - The heat wave led to health crises in several countries and combined with drought to create a crop shortfall in Southern Europe. A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply 35,000 people died as a result of the heat wave. 
14,802 people, mostly elderly, died in France from heat, according to the country's largest funeral service. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics.  France does not commonly have very hot summers (seven days with temperatures of more than 40°C (104 F) were recorded in Auxerre,Yonne between July and August 2003), particularly in the northern areas. Auxerre (pronounced) is a commune in the Bourgogne region of north-central France, between Paris and Dijon. As a consequence, most people do not know how to react to very high temperatures (for instance, with respect to rehydration), and most homes and retirement homes are not equipped with air conditioning. Rehydration is the replenishment of Water, or water and Electrolytes lost through Dehydration. The term air conditioning refers to the cooling and dehumidification of indoor air for Thermal comfort. Furthermore, while there are contingency plans for a variety of catastrophes and natural events, high heat had never been considered a major hazard and so such plans for heat waves did not exist at the time.
The heat wave occurred in August, a month in which many people, including government ministers and physicians, are on vacation. A heat wave is a prolonged period of excessively hot Weather, which may be accompanied by high Humidity.
Many bodies were not claimed for many weeks because relatives were on holiday. A refrigerated warehouse outside Paris was used by undertakers as they did not have enough space in their own facilities. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city On 3 September 2003, 57 bodies still left unclaimed in the Paris area were buried. Events 36 BC - In the Battle of Naulochus, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, Admiral of Octavian, defeats Sextus Pompeius Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city
That shortcomings of the nation's health system could allow such a death toll is a matter of controversy in France. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The administration of President Jacques Chirac and Prime Minister Jean-Pierre Raffarin laid the blame on
The opposition as well as many of the editorials of the local press have blamed the administration. In Politics, the opposition comprises one or more political parties or other organized groups that are opposed to the Government, party or group An editorial, leader (UK or leading article (UK is an article in a Newspaper or Magazine that expresses the opinion of the Editor Many blamed Health Minister Jean-François Mattei for failing to return from his vacation when the heat wave became serious, and his aides for blocking emergency measures in public hospitals (such as the recalling of physicians). A particularly vocal critic was Dr Patrick Pelloux, head of the union of emergency physicians, who blamed the Raffarin administration for ignoring warnings from health and emergency professionals and trying to minimize the crisis.
Mattei lost his ministerial post in a cabinet reshuffle on 31 March 2004. Events 307 - After divorcing his wife Minervina, Constantine marries Fausta, the daughter of the retired Roman Emperor "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again "
In the UK, a record-breaking 38. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located 5 °C (101. 4 °F) was recorded in Brogdale Orchards, one mile southwest of Faversham, Kent on Sunday, 10 August 2003. Faversham (fævɜʃəm is a town in Kent, England, in the district of Swale, roughly halfway between Sittingbourne and Canterbury KENT (1400 AM) is a Radio station broadcasting a Adult Standards/MOR format Events 612 BC - Killing of Sinsharishkun, King of Assyrian Empire Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. The previous highest recorded temperature was 37. 1 °C (98. 8 °F), recorded in Cheltenham. Education 
A retrospective analysis published in 2005 showed that the heat wave caused 2,139 excess deaths in the UK for the period 4 to 13 August 2003. 
Nearly 3,000 people died in Italy, where temperatures varied between 38 and 40 degrees Celsius in most cities for weeks, according to eurosurveillance. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest The Celsius Temperature scale was previously known as the centigrade scale. org. Other sources reported a much lower figure, not only for Italy but for other countries as well. New Scientist magazine reported 4,200 deaths in Italy and Spain attributable to the 2003 heatwave.  The Guardian reported 1,000 deaths in Italy, 4,000 in Spain. 
There were extensive forest fires in Portugal. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. Five percent of the countryside and ten percent of the forests were destroyed, an estimated 4,000 km². Eighteen people died in the fires. Temperatures reached as high as 48°C in Amareleja. The first of August was the hottest day in centuries, with night temperatures well above 30°C. A freak storm developed on the southern region during that dawn. A hot strong saharian wind blew during the subsequent days of that week. 
There were 141 deaths in the country. Temperature records were broken in various cities including Jerez 45. 1 °C, Badajoz 45. Badajoz - (IPA, formerly written Badajos in English the capital of the Spanish province of Badajoz in the autonomous community 0 °C, Huelva 43. Huelva is a city in southwestern Spain, the capital of the province of Huelva in the autonomous region of Andalusia. 4 °C, Gerona 41 °C, Burgos 38. History Early man of Neanderthal occupied sites around Burgos as early as 800000 years ago 8 °C, San Sebastián 38. Donostia-San Sebastián ( Basque: Donostia, IPA; Spanish: San Sebastián, known officially as Donostia-San Sebastián 6 °C, Pontevedra 36 °C, and Barcelona 36 °C. For other meanings see Pontevedra (disambiguation. Pontevedra is a city in the north-west of the Iberian Peninsula. Barcelona ( Catalan bəɾsəˈlonə Spanish baɾθeˈlona is the capital and most populous city of the Autonomous Community of Catalonia  In other cities of southern Spain, record temperatures were not recorded but the temperatures were higher than 40 °C: Murcia 41. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Murcia ( is the capital city of the Autonomous Community of the Region of Murcia, located at the river Segura in south-eastern Spain. 8 °C, Toledo 42. Toledo Spain locationpng|thumb|right|200px|Location of Toledo in Spain 0 °C, Cordoba, 46. ||-||-||} Córdoba ( Cordova in English is a City in Andalusia, southern Spain, and the capital of the province of Córdoba. 2 °C, and in Seville, it was 47 °C. Seville ( Spanish: Sevilla, see also different names) is the artistic cultural and financial capital of southern Spain. 
In Germany, a record temperature of 40. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. 4 Celsius (104. 7 Fahrenheit) was recorded at Roth bei Nürnberg, Bavaria. Roth bei Nürnberg is a town in Bavaria, Germany, the capital of the district ( Landkreis) Roth. Bavaria ( German:, with an area of 70553 Km² (27241 square miles and almost 12 With only half the normal rainfall, rivers were at their lowest this century, and shipping could not navigate the Elbe or Danube. The Elbe ( die Elbe Low German: de Ilv) is one of the major Rivers of Central Europe. The Danube (In Donau from earlier Danuvius, Celtic *dānu, meaning "to flow run" Slovak and Polish Dunaj Around 7,000 people (mostly elderly) died during the 2003 heatwave in Germany.
Melting glaciers in the Alps caused avalanches and flash floods in Switzerland. "Glacial" and "Glaciation" redirect here For the geological periods see Glacial period. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation A new nationwide record temperature of 41. 5 Celsius (106. 7 °F) was recorded in Grono, Graubünden. Grono is a municipality in the district of Moesa in the Swiss canton of Graubünden. Graubünden or Grisons ( German:, gʁaʊˈbyndən Italian: Grigioni; Romansh: Grischun) is the largest and easternmost 
Crops suffered from drought in Southern Europe, but conversely in the north they actually did very well.
The following shortfalls in wheat harvest occurred as a result of the long drought. Wheat ( Triticum spp is a worldwide cultivated grass from the Levant area of the Middle East.
Many other countries had shortfalls of 5-10%, and the EU total production was down by 10 million tonnes, or 10%. Moldova, officially the Republic of Moldova ( Republica Moldova) is a Landlocked country in Eastern Europe, located between Romania The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in
The heat wave greatly accelerated the ripening of grapes; also, the heat dehydrates the grapes, making for more concentrated juice. For the Tokyo University supercomputer see Gravity Pipe. GRAPE, or GRA phics P rogramming E nvironment is Dehydration ( hypohydration) is the removal of Water ( hydro in ancient Greek) from an object JUICE is a widely used non-commercial Software package for editing and analysing phytosociological data By mid-August, the grapes in certain vineyards had already reached their nominal sugar content, possibly resulting in 12°-12. A vineyard is a Plantation of Grape -bearing Vines grown mainly for Winemaking, but also Raisins Table grapes and non-alcoholic 5° wines (see alcoholic degree). Because of that, and also of the impending change to rainy weather, the harvest was started much earlier than usual (e. Rain is Liquid precipitation. On Earth it is the condensation of atmospheric Water vapor into drops heavy enough to fall often making it to In Agriculture, the harvest is the process of Gathering mature crops from the fields Reaping is the cutting of Grain g. in mid-August for areas that are normally harvested in September).
It is predicted that the wines from 2003, although in scarce quantity, will have exceptional quality, especially in France. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The heat wave made Hungary fare extremely well in the Vinalies 2003 International wine contest: a total of 9 gold and 9 silver medals were awarded to Hungarian winemakers. 
The heat wave has inevitably been linked to unprecedented weather extremes in other parts of the world taking place in the same general period (such as the worst drought in recorded history in Australia during the previous Australian summer, and massive floods in the USA) and attributed to global warming. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Global warming is the increase in the average measured temperature of the A December 2004 article in the journal Nature claimed man made climate change to be a contributing factor.  Global dimming has also been linked to the heatwave, the theory being that Europe's reduced pollution levels since the turn of the century have reduced dimming's masking effect on global warming. Global dimming is the gradual reduction in the amount of global direct Irradiance at the Earth 's surface that was observed for several decades after the start of systematic
The massive death toll in France has been blamed on France's labour laws which contributed to severe staff shortages in the public health and aged care systems during the country's summer holidays, as well as a lack of air-conditioning in French medical facilities. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The government of Jacques Chirac and his Minister for Health, Jean-François Mattei, were condemned for failing to issue warnings and not recalling staff back to work as news of mortality spikes were being reported from the health surveillance authorities.
The anomalous overheating affecting the atmosphere, also caused anomalies on sea surface stratification in the Mediterranean Sea and on the surface currents also. A seasonal current of the Central Mediterranean Sea, the Atlantic Ionian Stream (AIS), resulted modified in its path and intensity. The AIS is important for the reproduction biology of important pelagic commercial fish species, so the heatwave may have influenced indirectly the stocks of these species. Further studies will be addressed in this direction.