The 1923 Great Kantō earthquake (関東大震災 Kantō daishinsai?) struck the Kantō plain on the Japanese main island of Honshū at 11:58 on the morning of September 1, 1923. Marunouchi (丸の内 is a commercial district of Tokyo located in Chiyoda between Tokyo Station and the Imperial Palace. is the capital of Kanagawa Prefecture, located in the Kantō region of the main island of Honshū and is a major commercial hub of the Greater Tokyo Area The is a Geographical area of Honshū, the largest Island of Japan. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. or Honshu is the largest Island of Japan. The nation's main island, it is south of Hokkaidō across the Tsugaru Strait, north of Events 462 - Possible start of first Byzantine indiction cycle. Year 1923 ( MCMXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Varied accounts hold that the duration was between 4 and 10 minutes. The phrase "Great Kanto earthquake" usually means this earthquake, but is sometimes used to refer to the Ansei-Edo Earthquake of 1855 (安政の大地震).
The quake was later estimated to have had a magnitude between 7. 9 and 8. 4 on the Richter scale, with its epicenter deep beneath Izu Ōshima Island in Sagami Bay. The Richter magnitude scale, or more correctly local magnitude M L scale assigns a single number to quantify the amount of seismic energy released is a Volcanic Island in the Izu Islands and administered by the Tokyo Metropolitan government Japan, lies south of Tokyo and east of the Sagami Bay (相模湾 Sagami-wan) also known as the Sagami Gulf or Sagami Sea, lies south of Kanagawa Prefecture in Honshū, central It devastated Tokyo, the port city of Yokohama, surrounding prefectures of Chiba, Kanagawa, and Shizuoka, and caused widespread damage throughout the Kantō region. officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and located on the eastern side of the main island Honshū. is the capital of Kanagawa Prefecture, located in the Kantō region of the main island of Honshū and is a major commercial hub of the Greater Tokyo Area WikipediaWikiProject Japanese prefectures for guidelines--> is a prefecture of Japan located in the Greater Tokyo Area. WikipediaWikiProject Japanese prefectures for guidelines--> is a prefecture of Japan located in the Chūbu region on Honshū Island  The power and intensity of the earthquake is easy to underestimate; but the 1923 earthquake managed to move the 93-ton statute of Buddha at Kamakura. The statue slid forward almost two feet. 
Casualty estimates range from about 100,000 to 142,000 deaths, the latter figure including approximately 37,000 who went missing and were presumed dead. According to Japanese construction company Kajima Kobori Research report on September 2005, 105,000 confirmed dead in 1923 quake. 
Because the earthquake struck at lunchtime when many people were using fire to cook food, the damage and the number of fatalities were amplified due to fires which broke out in numerous locations. The fires spread rapidly due to high winds from a nearby typhoon off the coast of Noto Peninsula in Northern Japan and some developed into firestorms which swept across cities. Noto Peninsula (能登半島 Noto-hantō) is a peninsula that projects north into the Sea of Japan from the coast of Ishikawa prefecture in central A firestorm is a Conflagration which attains such intensity that it creates and sustains its own wind system This caused many to die when their feet got stuck in melting tarmac; however, the single greatest loss of life occurred when around 38,000 people packed into an open space at the Rikugun Honjo Hifukusho (Army Parade Ground) in downtown Tokyo were incinerated by a firestorm-induced fire whirl. A fire whirl, colloquially fire devil or fire tornado, is a phenomenon in which a Fire, under certain conditions (depending on air Temperature As the earthquake had caused water mains to break, putting out the fires took nearly two full days until late in the morning of September 3. Events 36 BC - In the Battle of Naulochus, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, Admiral of Octavian, defeats Sextus Pompeius The fires were the biggest cause of death.
The Imperial Palace caught fire, but the Prince Regent was unharmed. The Emperor and Empress were at Nikko when the earthquake struck the city, and they were never in any danger. 
Cases of homes being buried or swept away by landslides were particularly frequent in the mountainous areas and hilly coastal areas in western Kanagawa Prefecture. These cases are reported to account for the deaths of about 800 people. At the railway station in the village of Nebukawa west of Odawara, a collapsing mountainside plunged a passing passenger train with over 100 passengers downhill into the sea along with the entire station structure and the village itself. is a city located in Kanagawa, Japan. The city was founded on December 20, 1940. Tsunami reached the coast within minutes in some areas, hitting the coast of Sagami Bay, Boso Peninsula, Izu Islands and the east coast of Izu Peninsula. A tsunami ((tsuːˈnɑːmi is a series of waves created when Sagami Bay (相模湾 Sagami-wan) also known as the Sagami Gulf or Sagami Sea, lies south of Kanagawa Prefecture in Honshū, central Bōsō Peninsula (房総半島 Bōsō-hantō) is a Peninsula in Chiba prefecture on Honshū, the largest island of Japan. The are a group of Volcanic Islands stretching south and east from the Izu Peninsula of Honshū, Japan. The is a Peninsula to the west of Tokyo on the Japanese island of Honshū. Tsunami of up to 10 metres were recorded. Examples of tsunami damage include about 100 people killed along Yui-ga-hama beach in Kamakura and an estimated 50 people on the Enoshima causeway. is a city located in Kanagawa, Japan, about 50 km south-south-west of Tokyo. Enoshima (江の島 is a small Island, about 4 km in circumference at the mouth of the Katase River, which flows into Sagami Bay in Japan. Over 570,000 homes were destroyed, leaving an estimated 1. 9 million homeless. Some evacuees were transported by ship to as far from Kanto as the port of Kobe in Kansai.  The damage is estimated to have exceeded one billion U. S. dollars at contemporary values. There were 57 accountable aftershocks.
The panic and confusion created by the earthquake led to numerous false rumours spreading both inside and outside of the affected regions. Japanese newspaper articles carried confused stories, variously reporting the total annihilation of Tokyo, the Japanese cabinet getting wiped out, the entire Kantō region sinking into the sea, the destruction of the Izu Islands due to volcanic eruptions, and a monster tsunami reaching as far inland as Akagi (at the northernmost corner of the Kantō Plain, almost halfway across the width of the country). The is a Geographical area of Honshū, the largest Island of Japan. The are a group of Volcanic Islands stretching south and east from the Izu Peninsula of Honshū, Japan. Plate tectonics and hotspots Divergent plate boundaries At the A tsunami ((tsuːˈnɑːmi is a series of waves created when is a major mountain in Gunma Prefecture, Japan. Characterized by long gentle slopes the highest point is 1828 m above sea level
The Home Ministry declared martial law, and ordered all sectional police chiefs to make maintenance of order and security a top priority. The was a former Cabinet -level ministry established under the Meiji Constitution that managed the internal affairs of Empire of Japan from 1873-1947 Martial law is the system of rules that takes effect when the military takes control of the normal administration of justice One particularly pernicious rumor was that ethnic Koreans were taking advantage of the disaster, committing arson and robbery, and were in possession of bombs. Statistics According to the statistics at Immigration Bureau of Japan there were 593489 Koreans in Japan in 2007 In the aftermath of the quake, mass murder of Koreans by vigilante mobs occurred in urban Tokyo and Yokohama, fueled by rumors of rebellion and sabotage.  Some newspapers reported the rumors as fact, which led to the most deadly rumor of all: that the Koreans were poisoning wells. The numerous fires and cloudy well water (a little-known effect of a big quake) all seemed to confirm the rumors in the eyes of the panic-stricken survivors living among the rubble. Vigilante groups set up roadblocks in cities, towns and villages across the region. A vigilante is a person who ignores Due process of law and enacts their own form of Justice in response to a perception of insufficient response by the Because people with Korean accents pronounced "G" or "J" in the beginning of words differently, 15円 50銭 (jū-go-en, go-jus-sen) and がぎぐげご (gagigugego) were used as shibboleths. Shibboleth (ˈʃɪbəlɛθ or ˈʃɪbələθ is any practice which is indicative of one's social or regional origin Anyone who failed to pronounce them properly was deemed Korean. Some were told to leave, but many were beaten or killed. Moreover, anyone mistakenly identified as Korean, such as Chinese, Okinawans, and Japanese speakers of some regional dialects, suffered the same fate. is one of Japan 's southern prefectures, and consists of hundreds of the Ryukyu Islands in a chain over 1000 km long which extends southwest from Kyūshū A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος dialektos) is a variety of a Language that is characteristic of a particular group of
In response to this, the Japanese Army and the police conducted operations to protect Koreans. The Imperial Japanese Army ( IJA) ( Kyūjitai: 大日本帝國陸軍 Shinjitai: ja 大日本帝国陸軍 Romaji: Dai-Nippon Teikoku More than 2,000 Koreans were taken in for protection from the mobs across the region, although recent studies have shown that there were incidents where army and police personnel are known to have condoned or even colluded in the vigilante killings in some areas . The chief of police of Tsurumi (or Kawasaki by some accounts) is reported to have publicly drunk the well-water to disprove the rumour that Koreans have been poisoning wells. is a city located in Kanagawa, Japan, between Tokyo and Yokohama. In some towns, even police stations into which Koreans had escaped were attacked by mobs, whereas in other neighbourhoods residents took steps to protect them. The Army distributed flyers denying the rumour and warning civilians against attacking Koreans, but in many cases vigilante activity only ceased as a result of Army operations against it.
The total death toll from these disturbances is uncertain; according to the investigation by the Home Ministry, confirmed victims of vigilante justice were 231 Koreans killed and 43 injured, 3 Chinese killed, 59 Japanese (including Okinawans) killed and 43 injured. Actual estimates range as high as 6,600, although politically independent studies put the figure at just over 2,500. Three hundred and sixty-two Japanese civilians were eventually charged (for murder, attempted murder, manslaughter and assault), though most got off with nominal sentences, and even those who were sent to jail were later released with a general pardon commemorating the marriage of Prince Hirohito. also known as, (April 29 1901 – January 7 1989 was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order reigning from December 25 1926 until his death In contrast, the actual number of Koreans who were charged for crimes during this period were 2 for murder, 3 for arson, 6 for robbery and 3 for rape.
All of those charged with the killings were civilians, despite the fact that some military and police units are now known to have taken part in the crimes, prompting accusations of a cover-up. Though the word was not known in Japan at the time, the events have many of the characteristics of a pogrom, targeting Jews and other ethnic and religious groups in various countries . A pogrom is a form of Riot directed against a particular group whether ethnic religious or other and characterized by destruction of their Homes Businesses PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ On top of this violence, Socialists like Hirasawa Keishichi, anarchists like Sakae Osugi and Noe Ito, and Chinese communal leader, Ou Kiten, were abducted and killed by members of the police who claimed the victims had intended to use the crisis as an opportunity to overthrow the Japanese government. Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution Anarchism is a Political philosophy encompassing theories and attitudes which support the elimination of all compulsory Government, i was a radical Japanese anarchist. He published numerous anarchist periodicals helped translate various western anarchist essays into Japanese for the first time and created was an anarchist, social critic author and feminist. She graduated from Ueno Girls' High School in Ueno, Tokyo, and joined the Bluestocking
The importance of obtaining and providing accurate information following natural disasters has been emphasized in Japan ever since. Earthquake preparation literature in modern Japan almost always directs citizens to "carry a portable radio and use it to listen to reliable information, and [not to] be misled by rumours" in the event of a big quake.
Following the devastation of the earthquake, some in government considered the possibility of moving the capital elsewhere. Proposed sites for the new capital included Himeji and Keijō (Gyeongseong in Korean; present-day Seoul), which was under Japanese rule at the time. is a city located in Hyōgo Prefecture in the Kansai region of Japan. Gyeongseong is a Sino-Korean word for "capital city" and was in occasional use to refer to Seoul throughout the Joseon Dynasty, having earlier Seoul ( soʊl is the Capital and largest City of South Korea.
After the earthquake, Gotō Shimpei organized a reconstruction plan of Tokyo with modern networks of roads, trains, and public services. Count, ( 24 July, 1857 - 13 April, 1929) was a Japanese statesman A road is an identifiable route, way or path between two or more places. A train is a connected series of vehicles that move along a track ( Permanent way) to transport freight or passengers from one place to another Parks were placed all over Tokyo as refuge spots and public buildings were constructed with stricter standards than private buildings to accommodate refugees. A park is a protected area of Land and Water, usually in its natural or semi-natural (landscaped state and set aside for some purpose often to do with human However, the outbreak of World War II and the subsequent destruction severely limited resources. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including
The unfinished battlecruiser Amagi was being completed as an aircraft carrier at Yokosuka. Battlecruisers were large Warships in the first half of the 20th century that were first introduced by the British Royal Navy. Name The prevailing ship naming conventions dictated that she (like her sister ships be named after a mountain An aircraft carrier is a Warship designed with is a city located in Kanagawa, Japan. It is located at the mouth of Tokyo Bay in the Miura Peninsula, and the city stretches across However, it was damaged beyond repair in the earthquake. It was scrapped, and the unfinished fast battleship Kaga replaced it. Commanding Officers Chief Equipping Officer - Capt Seizaburo Kobayashi - 10 March 1927 - 1 December 1927 Chief Equipping Officer - Capt
Beginning in 1960, every September 1 is designated as Disaster Prevention Day to commemorate the earthquake and remind people of the importance of preparation, as September and October are the middle of the typhoon season. Year 1960 ( MCMLX) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 462 - Possible start of first Byzantine indiction cycle. Schools, public and private organizations host disaster drills. Tokyo is located near a fault line beneath the Izu peninsula which, on average, causes a major earthquake about once every 70 years. In Geology a fault, or fault line, is a planar rock fracture which shows evidence of relative movement The is a Peninsula to the west of Tokyo on the Japanese island of Honshū. Every year on this date, schools across Japan take a moment of silence at the precise time the earthquake hit in memory of the lives lost during this tragic event.
There are low-key memorial facilities in a small park in Sumida ward, Tokyo, at the site of the open space in which 30,000 people were killed by a single firestorm. is one of the 23 special wards of Tokyo, Japan. It calls itself Sumida City in English officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and located on the eastern side of the main island Honshū. The park houses a Buddhist-style memorial hall/museum, a memorial bell donated by Taiwanese Buddhists, a memorial to the victims of World War II Tokyo air raids and a memorial to the Korean victims of the vigilante killings.