Etienne-Jacques-Joseph-Alexandre MacDonald, 1st Duc de Taranto (November 17, 1765 – September 7, 1840) was Marshal and a French military leader during the Napoleonic Wars. Not to be confused with Toronto. Taranto ( Ancient Greek: Tarās; Modern Greek: Tarantas) is a coastal city in Events 284 - Diocletian is proclaimed emperor by his soldiers Year 1765 ( MDCCLXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Events 1251 BC - A Solar eclipse on this date might mark the birth of legendary Heracles at Thebes Greece. Year 1840 ( MDCCCXL) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year The Marshal of France (Maréchal de France and pl Maréchaux de France is a military distinction in contemporary France, not a Military rank.
He was born in Sedan, France. His father, Neil MacEachen (later MacDonald) of Howbeg came from a Jacobite family from the island of South Uist, in the Outer Hebrides of Scotland. Jacobitism was (and to a limited extent remains the political movement dedicated to the restoration of the Stuart kings to the thrones of England, Scotland South Uist ( Scottish Gaelic: Uibhist a Deas) is an Island of the Outer Hebrides in Scotland. The Outer Hebrides, ( officially known for local government purposes by the Gaelic name Na h-Eileanan Siar) comprise an island Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. He was a close relative of the celebrated Flora MacDonald, who played a key role in ensuring the escape of Prince Charles Edward Stuart after the failure of the 1745 Rising. Flora MacDonald ( Gaelic: Fionnghal NicDhòmhnaill) (1722 &ndash March 4, 1790) Jacobite heroine was the daughter of Ranald For the US politician see Charles E Stuart For "Betty Burke" see The 'Forty-Five' below The Jacobite Risings were a series of uprisings rebellions and wars in the kingdoms of England, Kingdom of Scotland (later the United Kingdom of Great Britain
In 1785 Macdonald joined the legion raised to support the revolutionary party in the Netherlands against the Prussians, and after it was disbanded he received a commission in the regiment of Dillon. Year 1785 ( MDCCLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen was a German kingdom from 1701 to 1918 and from 1871 was the leading state of the German Empire, comprising On the breaking out of the Revolution, the regiment of Dillon remained eminently loyal, with the exception of Macdonald, who was in love with Mlle Jacob, whose father was enthusiastic for the doctrines of the Revolution. The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an Directly after his marriage he was appointed aide-de-camp to General Dumouriez. Charles François Dumouriez ( January 25, 1739 &ndash March 14, 1823) was a French general of the French Revolutionary Wars He distinguished himself at the battle of Jemappes, and was promoted colonel in 1793. The Battle of Jemappes ( November 6, 1792) took place near the town of Jemappes in Hainaut, Belgium, near Mons.
He refused to desert to the Austrians with Dumouriez, and as a reward was made general of brigade, and appointed to command the leading brigade in Pichegru's invasion of the Netherlands. Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich Jean-Charles Pichegru ( February 16, 1761 &mdash April 5, 1804) was a French General and political figure of the French His knowledge of the country proved most useful, and he was instrumental in the capture of the Dutch fleet by French hussars. Hussar (original Hungarian spelling huszár, plural huszárok, Husaria refers to a number of types of Light cavalry created in Hungary In 1797, having been made general of division, he served first in the army of the Rhine and later in that of Italy. Year 1797 ( MDCCXCVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common When he reached Italy, the treaty of Campo Formio had been signed, and Bonaparte had returned to France; but, under the direction of Berthier, Macdonald first occupied Rome, of which he was made governor, and then in conjunction with Championnet he defeated General Mack, and revolutionized the kingdom of Naples under the title of the Parthenopaean Republic. The Treaty of Campo Formio was signed on October 17, 1797 (26 Vendémiaire Year VI of the French Republic by Napoleon Bonaparte and Count Ludwig Louis Alexandre Berthier, 1st Duc de Wagram, 1st Duc de Valengin, 1st Sovereign Prince de Neuchâtel ( February Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Jean Étienne Vachier called Championnet ( 1762 - January 9, 1800) French general enlisted in the army at an early age and served in the Karl Freiherr Mack von Leiberich ( August 25, 1752 - December 22, 1828) Austrian soldier was born at Nenslingen in Bavaria The Kingdom of Naples was an informal name of the Polity officially known as the Kingdom of Sicily which existed on the mainland of the southern Italian The Parthenopaean Republic (Italian Repubblica Partenopea) was a French -supported Republic in the territory of the Kingdom of Naples, formed
When Suvorov invaded northern Italy, and was winning back the conquests of Bonaparte, Macdonald collected all the troops in the peninsula and moved northwards. Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov (Алекса́ндр Васи́льевич Суво́ров (sometimes transliterated as Aleksandr, Aleksander and Suvarov With only 30,000 men he attacked, at the Trebbia, Suvorov with 50,000, and after three days' fighting, during which he held the Russians at bay and gave time for Moreau to come up, he retired in good order to Genoa. The Battle of Trebbia was fought on June 19 1799 and resulted in the victory of the Austrians and Russians under Field Marshal Suvorov Jean Victor Marie Moreau ( February 14, 1763 &ndash September 2, 1813) was a French general who helped Napoleon Bonaparte Genoa ( Genova, ˈdʒɛːnova in Italian; Zena in Genoese and Ligurian; Genua in Latin and archaically in English After this gallant behaviour he was made governor of Versailles, and acquiesced, if he did not co-operate, in the events of the 18th Brumaire. Brumaire was the second Month in the French Republican Calendar.
In 1800 he received the command of the army in Switzerland which was to maintain the communications between the armies of Germany and of Italy. Year -of the Julian calendar. The Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar until Friday, but 12 days ahead since Saturday. He carried out his orders to the letter, and at last, in the winter of 1800-1, he was ordered to march over the Splügen Pass. This achievement is fully described by Mathieu Dumas, who was chief of his staff, and is at least as noteworthy as Bonaparte's famous passage of the St Bernard before Marengo, though followed by no such successful battle. Guillaume Mathieu comte Dumas ( 23 November 1753 - 16 October 1837) was a French general In the Battle of Marengo was fought on 14 June 1800 between French forces under Napoleon Bonaparte and Austrian forces near the city of Alessandria On his return to Paris Macdonald married the widow of General Joubert, and was appointed French plenipotentiary in Denmark. Barthélemy Catherine Joubert ( April 14, 1769 &mdash August 15, 1799) was a French general The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe Returning in 1805 he associated himself with Moreau and incurred the dislike of Napoleon, who did not include him in his first creation of marshals.
Till 1809 he remained without employment, but in that year Napoleon gave him the command of a corps and the duties of military adviser to the young prince Eugène de Beauharnais, viceroy of the kingdom of Italy (Napoleonic). Year 1809 ( MDCCCIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Eugène Rose de Beauharnais Prince Français Prince of Venice, Viceroy of the Kingdom of Italy, Hereditary Grand Duke of Frankfurt, 1st Duke of Leuchtenberg The Kingdom of Italy ( Italian: Regno d'Italia, but also Regno Italico; 17 March 1805 – 11 April He led the army from Italy till its junction, with Napoleon, and at Wagram commanded the celebrated column of attack which broke the Austrian centre and won the victory. In the Battle of Wagram ( 5 – 6 July 1809) Napoleon Bonaparte 's French forces defeated Archduke Charles' Austrian
Napoleon made him marshal of France on the field of battle, and presently created him duke of Taranto, which he had created in 1809 a duché grand-fief (a rare, nominal but hereditary honor; extinguished in 1912) -by the French name Tarente- in the Bonapartist kingdom of Naples. The Marshal of France (Maréchal de France and pl Maréchaux de France is a military distinction in contemporary France, not a Military rank. Not to be confused with Toronto. Taranto ( Ancient Greek: Tarās; Modern Greek: Tarantas) is a coastal city in Year 1809 ( MDCCCIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year A duke is a member of the Nobility, historically of highest rank below the Sovereign, and historically controlled a Duchy or a Dukedom Year 1912 ( MCMXII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year starting
In 1810 he served in Spain and in 1812 he commanded the left wing of the grand army for the invasion of Russia. Year 1810 ( MDCCCX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Year 1812 ( MDCCCXII) a leap year started on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year In 1813, after sharing in the battles of Lützen and Bautzen, he was ordered to invade Silesia, where Blücher defeated him with great loss at Katzbach. Year 1813 ( MDCCCXIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common In the Battle of Lützen ( May 2, 1813) Napoleon lured a combined Prussian and Russian force into a trap halting the advances This is about the battle in 1813 For the World War II battle see Battle of Bautzen (1945 In the Battle of Bautzen ( 20 - 21 May The Battle of Katzbach on 26 August 1813, was an accidental engagement of the Napoleonic Wars between the forces of the First French Empire under After the terrible Battle of Leipzig, he was ordered with Prince Poniatowski to cover the evacuation of Leipzig; after the blowing up of the bridge, he managed to swim the Elster, while Poniatowski was drowned. The Battle of the Nations (or Battle of Leipzig or Völkerschlacht bei Leipzig) on 16–19 October 1813 was one of the most decisive defeats suffered by Napoleon Early Austrian years war with Turkey Prince Józef Antoni Poniatowski was born in Vienna, Austria in the Palais Kinsky (others say he was actually During the defensive campaign of 1814 Macdonald again distinguished himself; he was one of the marshals sent by Napoleon to take his abdication in favour of his son to Paris. Year 1814 ( MDCCCXIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common When all were deserting their old master, Macdonald remained faithful to him. He was directed by Napoleon to give in his adherence to the new régime, and was presented by him with the sabre of Murad Bey for his fidelity. Murad Bey (1750&ndash1801 was an Egyptian Mamluk chieftain Cavalry commander and joint ruler of Egypt with Ibrahim Bey.
At the Restoration he was made a peer of France and knight grand cross of the royal order of St. Following the ousting of Napoleon I of France in 1814 the Allies restored the Bourbon Dynasty to the French throne Peerage of France (Pairie de France was a distinction within the French nobility which appeared in the Middle Ages. Louis; he remained faithful to the new order of things during the Hundred Days. The Hundred Days was the period between Napoleon Bonaparte 's return from exile on Elba to Paris on 20 March 1815 and the restoration In 1815 he became chancellor of the Legion of Honour (a post he held till 1831), in 1816, major-general of the royal bodyguard, and he took a great part in the discussions in the Chambre des Pairs, voting consistently as a moderate Liberal. Year 1815 ( MDCCCXV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Peerage of France (Pairie de France was a distinction within the French nobility which appeared in the Middle Ages.
In 1823 he married Mademoiselle de Bourgony, by whom he had a son, Alexander, who succeeded on his death in 1840 as duke of Taranto.
From 1830 his life was spent in retirement at his country place Courcellesle-Roi (Seine et Oise), where he died. For the game see 1830 (board game. Year 1830 ( MDCCCXXX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display Seine-et-Oise was a département of France encompassing the western northern and southern parts of the metropolitan area of Paris.
Of him, the Encyclopedia Britannica of 1911 says:
Macdonald had none of that military genius that distinguished Davout, Masséna and Lannes, nor of that military science conspicuous in Marmont and St Cyr, but nevertheless his campaign in Switzerland gives him a rank far superior to such mere generals of division as Oudinot and Dupont. Louis-Nicolas d'Avout ( May 10, 1770 &ndash June 1, 1823) better known as Davout, 1st Duc d' Auerstaedt Jean Lannes, 1st Duc de Montebello, 1st Sovereign Prince de Sievers ( April 11, 1769 &ndash May 31, Auguste Frédéric Louis Viesse de Marmont, 1st Duc de Ragusa ( 20 July 1774 &ndash 22 March 1852) was a French Laurent de Gouvion-Saint-Cyr, 1st Marquis de Gouvion-Saint-Cyr ( Toul, May 13, 1764 &ndash Hyères, March 17, 1830 Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation Nicolas Charles Oudinot, 1st Comte Oudinot, 1st Duc de Reggio ( 25 April, 1767 &ndash 13 September, 1847) was Pierre-Antoine, Comte Dupont de l'Étang (1765-1840 was a French General of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars This capacity for independent command made Napoleon, in spite of his defeats at the battle of Trebia (1799) and the battle of Katzbach, trust him with large commands till the end of his career. The Battle of Trebbia was fought on June 19 1799 and resulted in the victory of the Austrians and Russians under Field Marshal Suvorov The Battle of Katzbach on 26 August 1813, was an accidental engagement of the Napoleonic Wars between the forces of the First French Empire under As a man, his character cannot be spoken of too highly; no stain of cruelty or faithlessness rests on him. 
Macdonald was especially fortunate in the accounts of his military exploits, Mathieu Dumas and Ségur having been on his staff in Switzerland. Philippe-Paul comte de Ségur ( November 4, 1780 - February 25, 1873) French General and Historian, son