|Électricité de France|
|Type||Corporation (société anonyme)|
|Founded||Paris, France (1946)|
|Key people||Marcel Paul, Founder|
Pierre Gadonneix, Chairman & CEO
|Industry||Electricity generation |
|Revenue||▲ € 58. A corporation is a separate legal entity usually used to conduct business For the art organization see Société Anonyme (art SA generally designates Corporations in various countries mostly those employing Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city Year 1946 ( MCMXLVI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Marcel Paul ( July 12 1900 &mdash November 11 1982) was a French Trade unionist and communist politician Pierre Gadonneix (born in 1943 is a French Businessman. He is the current CEO of EDF biography download the biography (PDF 17 Ko download the hi-definition For other uses of this term see Industry (disambiguation An industry (from Latin industrius, "diligent industrious" Electricity generation is the process of converting non-electrical Energy to Electricity. In Marketing, a product is anything that can be offered to a Market that might satisfy a want or need In business revenue or revenues is Income that a company receives from its normal business activities usually from the sale of goods and services 9 billion EUR (2006)|
Électricité de France (EDF) is the main electricity generation and distribution company in France. Please update other articles as well to avoid contradiction within Wikipedia e Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Employment is a Contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " A website (alternatively web site or Web site, a back-construction from the Proper noun World Wide Web) is a collection of Web pages This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. It was founded on April 8, 1946 as a result of the nationalisation of a number of electricity producers, transporters and distributors by the Communist Minister of Industrial Production Marcel Paul. Events 217 - Roman Emperor Caracalla is Assassinated (and succeeded by his Praetorian Year 1946 ( MCMXLVI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Nationalization, also spelled nationalisation, is the act of taking an industry or assets into the Public ownership of a national government Marcel Paul ( July 12 1900 &mdash November 11 1982) was a French Trade unionist and communist politician Until November 19, 2004 it was a government corporation, but it is now a limited-liability corporation under private law (société anonyme). Events 1095 - The Council of Clermont, called by Pope Urban II to discuss sending the First Crusade to the Holy Land "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " A corporation is a separate legal entity usually used to conduct business The government plans to float 30% of its shares on the stock market by the end of 2005, and retain 70% government ownership.
EDF held a monopoly in the distribution, but not the production, of electricity in France until 1999, when the first European Commission directive to harmonize regulation of electricity markets was implemented. In Economics, a monopoly (from Greek monos, alone or single + polein, to sell exists when a specific individual or enterprise has sufficient Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar) The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. A directive is a legislative act of the European Union which requires member states to achieve a particular result without dictating the means of achieving An electricity market is a system for effecting the purchase and sale of electricity using Supply and demand to set the price
Its 58 active nuclear reactors (in 2004) are spread out over 20 sites (nuclear power plants). This article is a subarticle of Nuclear power. A nuclear reactor is a device in which Nuclear chain reactions are initiated controlled "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " Nuclear power is any Nuclear technology designed to extract usable Energy from atomic nuclei via controlled Nuclear reactions They comprise 34 reactors of 900MW, 20 reactors of 1300 MW, and 4 reactors of 1450MW, all PWRs. Pressurized water reactor ( PWR s (also VVER if of Russian design are generation II nuclear power reactors that use ordinary Water
EDF was an EPIC (public establishment with industrial and commercial character), and as such, it was subject to the "principle of speciality", that is it had the right to sell electricity; the purpose of this principle of speciality was to prevent EDF competing in an unfair way on their own markets.
EDF's modification of status, announced in March, 2004 by the French government, became effective, after the vote of the "Loi relative au service public de l'électricité et du gaz et aux entreprises électriques et gazières" (law relating to the public service of electricity and gas and in the electrical and gas firms) on August 9, 2004 by publication in the Journal officiel of November 19, 2004. Events 48 BC - Caesar's civil war: Battle of Pharsalus - Julius Caesar decisively defeats Pompey at Pharsalus Events 1095 - The Council of Clermont, called by Pope Urban II to discuss sending the First Crusade to the Holy Land
The transformation into a Société anonyme (public company) was implemented for several reasons:
The status of EPIC created a competitive advantage which became unbearable for the electricity producers in other European countries, especially since the multitude of acquisitions which EDF had accomplished in the UK, Italy and Germany. Thus, they requested that the same 'rules of the game' apply for all.
For their part, EDF needed a juridical structure allowing it to reinforce its equity capitals and to receive investors. Its requirements in equity capitals were estimated in May 2004, between 10 and 15 billion euro. May 2004: January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September Please update other articles as well to avoid contradiction within Wikipedia e
The specific regime of social welfare system and that of supplementary illness, cover 300,000 electricians and gas workers. A ratified agreement, in November 2004, by only two labour unions, reached a deadlock and the three others opposed BOB. November 2004: January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September
For a long time, EDF suffered from very low profits for a group benefiting from such monopoly, especially since in the weakness of its results on the domestic market, were added the poor performances of its foreign subsidiaries. Nevertheless, its balance sheet is very fragile, because of its international development, of its tariff policy in France and rapid deterioration of its profitability.
From 2001 till 2003, EDF was forced to reduce its equity capital due to untoward deviations of conversion in South America and write-down of its assets in Germany, Italy and in Brazil for a total of €6. 4 billion total. However, according to the report of the Roulet Commission, international development, although costly, must be followed, because if EDF spent €15 billion euro on acquisitions, its rivals would spend €70 billion. The commission recommends a European strategy, an international presence, albeit focussed, and a larger drive to supply gas.
The most significant problem (in May, 2004) was the rocking of the balance sheet between equity capitals of €19 billion and a €24. 5 billion debt (November, 2004), for which it is necessary to add:
And, as of November, 2004, complete commitment will overtop the €35 billion euro, which seems to mean that it is not able to cope with its pension commitments or the dismantling of its nuclear power stations.
2002 was considered a bad year, with a small €481 million net profit. 2003 saw a small increase with a €857 million net profit. In the first quarter of 2004, the net profit rose to about €1. 5 billion (up 50% in comparison with the 1st quarter of 2003).
The tariff policy ordered by the company contract of 1997-2000 had imposed a reduction of 14% of tariffs. Today, EDF's tariffs in France are among lowest in the world, which leaves room for maneuver to increase tariffs.
The choice of nuclear technology, as always, was considered peculiar for EDF. Nuclear power is any Nuclear technology designed to extract usable Energy from atomic nuclei via controlled Nuclear reactions Its engineers made France the first country use electricity of nuclear origin as the dominant method of production (78% of French production by 2007).
Nuclear technology produces clean electricity, but with some risks, even if they are controlled better and better. In May, 2004, the French minister Nicolas Sarkozy reasserted, in front of the French Parliament, the primacy of a nuclear power, much to the relief of labour unions of EDF. Nicolas Sarkozy (pronounced, On this opportunity, the minister had imitated the famous slogan "We do not have oil, but we have ideas" by declaring: "We do not have oil, we do not have gas, we do not have coal, but we had ideas".
In general, the local elected representatives were against the modification of the status of the government-owned firm and expressed it aloud. They fear, particularly those of rural districts, and perhaps justifiably, that after the disappearance of post offices and schools, that of the EDF/GDF, and have held talks, in summary:
They also wonder about the assertion of the principle of the tariff adjustment (a unique tariff on the whole territory and equality of users), because as soon as the sale of electricity becomes readily available, it is subjected to the rule of competition and taken into account the true expenses on every segment of customers. The countryside, sparsely populated, risk being the biggest losers.
They also wonder about the true purpose of the government in this affair, and about the strategical will of partners deprived in the capital of EDF, whilst heavy threats (question of retirement, dismantling of nuclear power stations) tax the true balance sheets of the firm.
According to François Roussely the former president of EDF, it is not possible to reconcile low prices and competition in electricity. At any rate where countries privatized electricity, it was rapidly followed by an increase in prices and a certain insecurity about energy, notably owing to speculation on electricity (e. g. Enron). Enron Creditors Recovery Corporation (formerly Enron Corporation, former NYSE ticker symbol ENE was an American Energy company based in
The electricity network is composed of:
Before 1956, the electricity companies of France did not use a standardised voltage. Year 1956 ( MCMLVI) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Between 1956 and 1991, the voltage was standardized, and today the voltage is 230 V on all French territory. Year 1956 ( MCMLVI) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar.
Migration from 220 volts cost the equivalent of €70 per subscriber in the beginning, and €1,000 per subscriber in 1991. Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar. Eventually, the old usage of 220 volts in France standardized itself to 230 volts, in accordance with European standard.
Apart from the producers and foreign distributors, in France, there are some important companies, which, although their market share is weak with regard to that of EDF, are a significant competition. A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle ( PHEV) is a Hybrid vehicle with batteries that can be recharged by connecting a plug to an Electric power Vehicle-to-grid (V2G describes a system in which power can be sold to the electrical power grid by an electric-drive motor vehicle that is connected to the grid when it is not (pronounced) is a Multinational corporation headquartered in Japan, and is currently the world's largest Automaker. These are:
Among the other rivals of EDF, one can count a number of municipally governed companies, known under the generic term 'entreprises locales de distribution' ('local businesses of distribution'), who are electricity producers exploiting EDF's network.
The nationalisation of electricity and gas on April 8, 1946, which profoundly changed the French electrical and gas organization, had however acknowledged the right of villages to keep their role in the public distribution of electricity and gas. Events 217 - Roman Emperor Caracalla is Assassinated (and succeeded by his Praetorian Year 1946 ( MCMXLVI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
In 1946, certain firms, villages or groups of villages, did not accept the proposal of nationalisation and created autonomous state controls (who held the monopoly of distribution, until 2004, in their area). Year 1946 ( MCMXLVI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. To note, contrary to the initial idea, local controllers of electricity, have had, since 1946, the choice to continue to produce electricity. In fact, their production was rather marginal, except in Rhône-Alpes; having often preferred buying the majority of the electrical power from EDF. Rhône-Alpes ( Franco-Provençal: Rôno-Arpes; Occitan: Ròse Aups) is one of the 26 regions of France, located on the With the recent opening of the electricity market, local controllers are considering developing, augmenting and diversifying their own production, (e. g. Ouest Énergie, the subsidiary company of SIEDS) and/or to diversify their sources of supply.
To date, the number of local businesses of distribution is approximately 170 and holds 5% of the distribution of French electrical power in 2,500 villages. Created by local authorities, they serve about 3 million people and represent 7,000 jobs. Around thirty of them - 9 during creation in 1962 - are federated in a national entity known as ANROC .
Several departments are not therefore served entirely or partly by EDF, for instance:
In Italy, EDF holds 15% of Italenergiabis (the holding company of control of Edison), but has only 2% of decision rights by proclamation of the Italian government.
Negotiations had taken place in 2004 for the entrance of ENEL on the French market, with freedom to acquire quantities of electricity from EDF, and on the other hand the implementation of buying Edison. Enel ( E nte N azionale per l'energia EL ettrica is an Italian Energy provider and the third largest energy provider in the Negotiations at this point did not succeed, which forced EDF to buy back, at the beginning of 2005, 3% of its actual partners (Fiat, Carlo Tassara, and from banks) for €606 million, but without recovering decision-making rights. Fiat SpA (an Acronym for Fabbrica Italiana Automobili Torino (Italian Automobile Factory of Turin) is an Italian automobile manufacturer
But negotiations carry on and in February and April 2005, EDF bought back the participation of other majority shareholders, in total, and considering the takeover bid which it will also have to throw on the minority shareholders, EDF will have to disburse more than €14 billion. EDF will then be in a grotesque situation, because detaining 100% of capital, its rights to vote will always be blocked to 2%, as long as France does not open its energy market to foreign competition.
The former president of EDF, François Roussely, had bargained for ENEL a right of 4 megawatts so that the Italian firm can gain knowledge of the French market, before buying a participation in the transport system of electricity. But the new president, Pierre Gadonneix, cut short any negotiations. Also, ENEL which was interested in buying 35% of SNET, put up for sale by Collieries of France, was doubled by Gaz de France.
Negotiations take place and since the end of January, the matter is at the level of the Italian and French ministries. These negotiations concern:
On July 8, 2005, EDF adopted a new logo. Events 939 - The Major Occultation or Ghaybat el-Kubra of Muhammad al-Mahdi 1099 - First Crusade: 15000 Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The previous logo had not been modified much since the company's founding, the last and only edit being made in 1987. Year 1987 ( MCMLXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar) According to EDF, the former logo featured the tricolours of the French flag and considered it "poorly adapted to unifying group subsidiaries. " The new logo is suggestive of a turbine and "embodies the Group's commercial and industrial dynamism. " 
This is a list of companies from France. A-B C-D E-K L-Q R-S T-Z Gaz de France (GDF was a French company which produced transported and sold Natural gas around the world especially in France its main market Net metering is an Electricity policy for Consumers who own generally small Renewable energy facilities such as wind or Solar power A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle ( PHEV) is a Hybrid vehicle with batteries that can be recharged by connecting a plug to an Electric power Superphénix ( English: Superphoenix) or SPX is a Nuclear power station on the Rhône River at Creys-Malville in France, (pronounced) is a Multinational corporation headquartered in Japan, and is currently the world's largest Automaker. Vehicle-to-grid (V2G describes a system in which power can be sold to the electrical power grid by an electric-drive motor vehicle that is connected to the grid when it is not The Economist is an English-language weekly news and International affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London